HN World History Midterm

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What is the Reformation?
A movement that sought to correct abuses and introduce reform into the Catholic Church. It led to a split within the Church and the establishment of Protestantism.
What events led to the Reformation?

-Political, theological trouble in the medieval Church

-Avignon Papacy + Great Schism

-Increase in Church secularism

-Social, political, and cultural shifts, like Renaissance

Who were two men that made early calls for reform?
John Wycliffe and Jan Hus
Who were John Wycliffe and Jan Hus?
Both had been labeled heretics, John had questioned the pope's authority and been burned at the stake b/c of it.
Who were some of the Great Continental Reformers?
Philip Melanchthon, Martin Luther, Jan Hus, John Calvin, Gustavus Adolphus, Ulrich Zwingli, Johannes Bugenhagen, Ulrich von Hutten
What were indulgences?
People could pay money and be freed of their sins.
What logic did the Church use to justify indulgences?
The saints had preformed more good deeds then they needed to get into heaven and the "excess" could be sold off by the Church
Who is Martin Luther?
A german monk who was a leader of the Reformation. Became a monk after he survived a storm.
Who was John Tetzel?
A man who came to Luther's town selling indulgences
What did the money from the selling of indulgence go to?
Paying for part of the reconstruction of St. Peter's Cathedral
When did Luther post his 95 Theses?
October 31, 1517
What were the 95 Theses?
A list of everything Luther thought about religion and the church and indulgences. His protest. He did not intend to leave the Church, just wanted it to change
What were some of the ideas of Luther's 95 Theses?
No one could perform any sort of work to obtain salvation or forgiveness. Thought indulgences couldn't do anything in the first place. Questioned why the pope made people pay for the indulgences.
What was the Pope's response to Luther?
Told him that indulgences were not forgiveness. Luther thought this wasn't enough but Pope Leo X did not want to lose the revenue.
What happened at the Diet of Augsburg?
Luther and papal people argued, Luther's friends hid him afraid of what may happen.
What happened at the Diet of Worms?
The new holy roman emperor Charles V declared Luther a heretic and forbade the printing of his writings. Ordered him to appear at the Imperial Diet in Worms.
What happened when Luther refused to recant his ideas?
Charles V declared him an outlaw and Luther hid in Wartburg Castle.
What Church/university did Luther form?
What was the first city to convert to Lutheranism?
What was the Peasants' Revolt?
English peasants revolted against low wages and lords freezing serfs movements in society. Peasants killed lords and burned manors. Looked to Luther for support but he didn't at all.
What did Luther's rejection of the peasants' violence gain him?
respect from the upper classes
What happened after the Peasant revolt?
Luther became dependent on political leaders for protection and support.
What did the Peace of Augsburg do?
Allowed German princes to decide what religion would be followed in their lands
What were some of Luther's theological views?
Favor of religion being based on faith. Everyone responsible for their own religious life. Holding services in Latin.
Who was Ulrich Zwingli?
The head of the reformation in Switzerland. Argued that he hadn't copied Luther
What were some of Zwingli's ideas/reforms?
no church decor, no music, salvation by faith alone, rejected purgatory, eliminated monasteries, scripture alone
What happened with Zwingli's reform?
caused controversy, summoned to disputation where he prevailed.
What was the Marburg Colloquy?
A disagreement with Luther and Zwingli that split the Protestants. Philip of Hesse called conference to try to create a unified Protestant theology.
What was the Swiss Civil War?
war between Protestant and Catholic cantons of Switzerland. Zwingli fought and was killed.
Who was John Calvin?
A french lawyer who traveled to Geneva where he organized a Protestant movement (later became puritans)
What were some of Calvin's theological ideas?
predestination, value in hard work, justification by faith alone, consubstantiation.
What is predestination?

T - total depravity = humans are sinful

U - unconditional election = people are chosen for salvation b/c of God

L - limited atonement = only some are chosen

I - irresistible grace = cannot resist the call of God

P - perseverance of the saints = afterlife exists for the elect

Where did Calvin implement his ideas?
Council in Geneva
What did Calvin create to monitor the morality of the citizens of Geneva?
What was Calvin's moral code for the Consistory?
no plays, fortune telling banned, no laughing during a sermon, what color of clothes people could wear.
How did Calvinism spread?
Geneva became known as "Protestant Rome", Calvin replaced Luther, reformists would come from all over and take the ideas home with them.
Who were the Anabaptists?
A protest group that believed in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian and in separation of church and state
What were the beliefs of anabaptists?
members should live simple lives, church was a voluntary organization, all members were equal.
What did the radical anabaptists in Munster do?
saw Munster as new Jerusalem. Took over the city and made everything communal. gained control by force.
Who were the Mennonites?
after incident in Munster, anabaptists devoted themselves to pacifism. Menno Simons revitalized the anabaptism. urged followers to pursue peace
What began the Reformation in England?
Henry VIII's break with the Roman Church through his divorce with Catherine of Aragon
Who avoided granting Henry VIII an annulment?
Charles V + Pope Clement VII
What happened after Henry sought an annulment through the British Ecclesiastical Courts?
Secretly married Anne Boleyn and had Elizabeth I
What were the three acts passed by Henry that enforced the break between Parliament and Rome?

Act of Restraint in Appeals

Act of Supremacy

Act of Succession

What was the Act in Restraint of Appeals?
denied the pope's authority
What was the Act of Supremacy?
made the king the head of the English Church
What was the Act of Succession?
required all subjects to take a loyalty to the king as head of church
Who was the mom of Edward VI?
Jane Seymour
Who was Sir Thomas More?
named Lord Chancellor in 1529, opposed the reform movement and Henry's new marriage. Was a friend of Henrys. refused to acknowledge Henry's acts.
What were the changes to structure in Henry's church?
Three acts, monarch is head of church, treason act = treason to say king wasn't head of church, dissolved monasteries.
What were the theological changes in Henry's church?
catholic doctrine, six articles act = asserted catholic teachings, transubstantiation, clerical celibacy
What happened when monasteries were dissolved?
the monarchy benefitted financially from the sales, and many nobles purchased the lands, increasing their landholdings
When did the real Reformation develop?
after Henry's death
What did Edward VI move the country towards?
What did Mary I move the country towards?
back towards Catholicism
What did Elizabeth I move the country towards?
again towards Protestantism
What did Edward do during his rule?
His uncle ruled for him because he was underage, strengthened Protestantism, archbishop Crammer moved the Anglican Church towards Protestantism
Who was Mary I?
Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, nicknamed Bloody Mary because she killed so many people (protestants) based on their religious beliefs. married to King Phillip II. Reaffirmed the position of the Pope as the head of the Church.
How did Mary reassert Catholicism?
restoration of Catholic worship practices, abolished Protestant worship, nobles feared that she would confiscate the former monastic lands that Henry had given to nobles, Mary chose not to do this.
What was Mary's campaign against the Protestants?
She had some 300 Protestants executed accusing most of heresy. Ultimately her persecution of Protestants had the opposite effect and England was more Protestant at the end of her reign.
When did Elizabeth become queen?
November 1558
What did Elizabeth I do?
Brought Protestantism back to England, but didn't persecute Catholics. Created religious stability for England. Parliament passed Act of Uniformity and Succession to establish the foundation for the Church of England. Formerly endorsed the Book of Common Prayer.
How did the Catholic Church respond to the Reformation?
some wanted to make Church changes, others wanted to attack, ultimately decided to involve both of these actions. Became known as the Catholic Reformation
What was the Inquisition?
A movement by the church to get rid of heresy by persecuting Protestants they were trying to reconvert them. Punishments were things like wearing a badge, or being forced to a convent/monastery
Who were the Capuschins?
an order modeled after the Franciscans
Who were the Ursulines?
founded for the purpose of teaching young girls
Who were the Jesuits?
Founded by Ignatius Loyola
What did Theresa of Avila do?
called for renewal in religious orders. Focused on spiritual mysticism and call for a return to emotional devotion and piety.
Who was Ignatius of Loyola?
Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits
What was the society of Jesus?
founded by Ignatius, vow of obedience to the Pope, established schools, active in missionary work, Book Spiritual Exercises which emphasized that people should
What is the Council of Trent?
council that met on three occasions over an 18-year period. They had two main goals, to clarify and codify Catholic dogma and to reform problems and abuses within the Church. The Papacy became more centralized, organized, and aggressive as a result.
What were the theological ideas of the Council of Trent?
Retained the seven sacraments, rejected protestant reform doctrine, opposed clerical marriage, reaffirmed belief in Purgatory, the ideas of the Reformation didn't influence the council, reasserted the importance of the Pope
What were the policies implemented by the council of Trent?
indulgence would no longer be sold, stressed priestly obligations, ordered seminaries founded, declared Latin as the only acceptable version of the Bible, Index of Forbidden Books
What the improvements for women during the Reformation
responsible for their own faith, ministers marry shows the value of women, women are seen as leaders and educators of their children, family seen as the center of faith
What did women not get improvement on during the Reformation?
still not allowed to be ministers or hold church office, still viewed as subordinate to men, more firmly locked into roles as housekeepers and childbearers.
What were the overall religious changes of the reformation?
oblivious split in Christianity between Protestant and Catholicism. religious persecution and division. Set the stage for future religious conflicts. No freedom of religion. Peace of Augsburg did not resolve the problems of religious different or put an end to religious persecution.
What were the overall political implications of the reformation?
evolving nature of relationship between church and state. the religion of the people was tied to the religion of the leader. State-headed churches were created. Break from papal political influence. Increased autonomy and independence.
What were the overall economic developments of the reformation?
contributed to the emergence of capitalism. System of production and distribution. attitude of individualism. Work was valued
What were the overall social changes of the Reformation?
Increased education and literacy. crackdown on customary festivals and rituals. More positive view of the family through allowing clergy members to marry. Marriage is now seen as more of a partnership. Improved view of women
What was the end result of the Reformation?
the earlier unity that Catholicism had created was gone for good. the reformation did not resolve all the problems that had plagued the Catholic Church, but brought them to the forefront of discussions. Its most prominenet effect would be the creation of new Christian groups. it also had a major impact on the Catholic Church, European monarchies, and social structures.
"rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome. It was a time of artistic creativity, and political, social, economic, and cultural change, it reawakened interest in learning about Ancient Greece and Rome
Where did it begin?
Italy in the 14th century, then spread throughout Europe, at this time Italy was not unified
Italian city-states

Milan = rich, controlled trade through the Alps

Venice = Adriatic, trade from all over

Florence = De Medici Family, patrons of the arts

Genoa = access to trade routes

Italian Society
Failed to unite, instead formed separate city-states, moving towards a more secular society.
Why Italy?
city-states had wealth from trade and the trade industry helped other industries to grow. city-states were lead by a wealthy middle class who supported the arts, Italy had a central location with access to trade, so they began to look at the learnings of Ancient Greece and Rome. The Muslim world had preserved texts from the ancient world that Italy was able to access through trade.
Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means." He was one of the first people to write about politics from a secular view
The Prince
A book wrote by Niccolo Machiavelli in 1513 about the imperfect conduct of humans and says **how a ruler is able to keep power and manage to keep it** disregarding enemies.
Baldassare Castiglione
An Italian author who wrote the book The Courtier in 1528. He described the ideal Renaissance man and woman. He advocated for a humanist education.
The courtier
a person who attends a royal court as a companion or adviser to the king or queen. Castiglione wrote his book as sort of a hand guide for courtiers and on how to be well educated, well mannered, and an overall Renaissance Man
Renaissance Man
The belief that men should embrace all knowledge and become skilled in many areas.
Art of the Renaissance
artists reflected humanist concerns, usually with ties to Ancient Greece and Rome. The art reflected the classical culture, humanism, and Christianity. there were more portraits of individuals. New techniques arose such as perspective, shading, sfumato, chiaroscuro
a technique used by artists to give the appearance of depth and distance
water paintings done on wet plaster that can tell the stories and cultures of the area around it
Oil paints
new artistic technique developed by Van Eyck that provided richer colors
New paint techniques
Renaissance painters introduced many new painting techniques such as the use of perspective, shading, oil paints, sfumato, and chiaroscuro, their art also pivited to reflected more humanist ideas and towards realism.
Spread of Renaissance
trade, artists fleeing to the north because of wars, nothern scholars traveling south seeking education, and the invention of the printing press
Italian vs. Northern Renaissance
Italian: soft styles, use of pastels, religious subjects when the church was financed, stories from classical Greece and Rome. Northern: sharp and vivid styles, more pastels, subjects of families and everyday life, fewer nudes, fewer religious scenes, more landscapes
Urban Society
A system in which cities are the center of political, economic, and social life.
the language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region.
Printing Press
15th century invention which revolutionized the ability to print information which in turn affected the speed of the spread of information itself. Invented by Johannes Gutenberg.
rich city-state in northern Italy; located at the crossroads of main trade routes, through the Alps
An Italian trading city on the Ariatic Sea,
Lots of wealth, leader of the church of Italy
Patrons of the arts, power from the Medici family
aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century, they sponsored and kept the arts alive
family that came to power in Milan 1450. They were a Condottiere family: hired mercenaries
Van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
German artist who learned about Italian art from traveling and studying in Italy
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
(1265-1321) Italian poet and Renaissance writer. His greatest work is The Divine Comedy.
Christian de Pisan
Italian author of The City of Women. Believes in equality and education for women
Christian humanist who wrote The Praise of Folly and wanted a reform of the Catholic Church
Thomas Moore
1516 wrote Utopia about an imaginary land inhabited by a peace-loving people, an ideal place. In Utopia, greed, corruption, war, and crime had been weeded out.
Leonardo da Vinci
A well known Italian Renaissance artist, architect, musician, mathemetician, engineer, and scientist. Known for the Mona Lisa. Developed the painting technique of sfumato.
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, the sculpture Pieta, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature. Sculpted Gattamelata.
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468) Printed the Gutenberg Bible.
the leading English language poet and playwright of the Renaissance
Sistine Chapel
A Catholic church in Vatican City, Italy. Its ceiling was painted by the Renaissance artist Michelangelo.
School of Athens
Fresco painting. Painted by Raphael and depicts philosophers laying on the steps of a school. Placed in the Vatican.
Equestrian statue. Located in Italy. Depicts a man named Gattamelata. Sculpted by Donatello.
Florentine architect who was the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance (1377-1446)
Domed cathedral in Florence, done by Brunelleschi
The Last Supper
Painting by Leonardo da Vinci, key example of the starting of the technique of perspective
Mona Lisa
A painting by Leonardo da Vinci of a woman with a mysterious smile. It is now of the most readily recognized paintings in the world.
La Pieta


Sculpture by Michelangelo

Mary holding the body of Jesus

Location: St. Peter's Basilica

Statue of David
Famous statue made by Michaelangelo.
an imagined place or state of things in which everything is perfect, written by Thomas Moore