[anatomy] chapter 3 - cells and tissues

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the human body houses over ___ different cell types
size, shape, and function
cells vary in this
1/12,000 of an inch to over 1 yard (nerve cells)
cells vary in length from...
specialized function
cell shape reflects its...
fibroblast cells and erythrocyte cells
cells that CONNECT body parts
secretes cable-like fibers
erythrocyte (red blood cell)
carries oxygen in the bloodstream
epithelial cells
cells that COVER AND LINE body organs
epithelial cells
packs together in sheets; intermediate fibers resist tearing during rubbing or pulling
skeletal muscle and smooth muscle cells
cells that MOVE organs and body parts
skeletal muscle and smooth muscle cells
contractile filaments allow cells to shorten forcefully
fat cells
cells that STORE nutrients
fat cells
lipid droplets stored in the cytoplasm
white blood cells (such as the macrophage, a phagocytic cell)
cells that FIGHT DISEASE
white blood cells
digests infectious microorganisms
nerve cells (neurons)
cells that GATHER INFORMATION AND CONTROL body functions
nerve cells
receives and transmits messages to other body structures
oocyte cell and sperm cell
oocyte (female)
largest cell in the body; divides to become an embryo upon fertilization
sperm (male)
built for swimming to the egg for fertilization; flagellum acts as a motile whip
nucleoplasm and cytosol
intracellular fluids
intracellular fluid
interior of the cell; a solution containing gases, nutrients, and salts dissolved in water
extracellular fluid
exterior of the cell; contains thousands of ingredients such as nutrients, hormones, neurotransmitters, salts, and waste products
selectively permeable
the plasma membrane is a ____________________________________ barrier
passive processes and active processes
two basic methods of transport
active processes requires energy
difference between passive processes and active processes
passive processes
substances are transported across the membrane without any input from the cell
active processes
the cell provides the metabolic energy (ATP) to drive the transport process
isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic
type of osmosis solutions
isotonic solutions
have the same solute and water concentrations as cells and cause no visible changes in the cell
hypertonic solutions
contains more solutes than the cells do; the cells will begin to shrink
hypotonic solutions
contains fewer solutes (more water) than the cells do; cells will plump
vesicular transport
active transport process
vesicular transport
substances are moved across the cell membrane "in bulk" without actually crossing the plasma membrane
exocytosis (exit) and endocytosis
types of vesicular transport
exocytosis (exit)
bulk items are removed from the cell
bulk items are brought into the cell
phagocytosis and pinocytosis
types of endocytosis
solids in
liquids in
groups of cells with similar structure and function
epithelial, cartilage, dense connective tissue, loose connective tissue
four types of tissue
body coverings, body linings, and glandular tissue
locations of epithelial tissue
protection, absorption, filtration, secretion
functions of epithelial tissue
cover and lines body surfaces
hallmark of epithelial tissues; often form sheets with one FREE SURFACE, the apical surface, and a BASAL-anchored, regenerate easily if well-nourished; anchored surface: the BASEMENT MEMBRANE
no blood supply
simple or stratified
epithelial cell layers
one layer of epithelial cell tissue
more than one layer of epithelial cell tissue
squamous, cuboidal, and columnar
shape of epithelial tissue cells
flattened like fish scales
cube shaped like dice
shaped like columns
simple epithelia
functions in absorption, secretion, and filtration; very thin (so not suited for protection)
simple squamous epithelium
single layer of flat cells, lines air sacs of the lungs, forms serous membranes (serosae) that line and cover organs in the ventral cavity, functions in diffusion, filtration, or secretion in membranes LOCATION: usually forms membranes
simple cuboidal epithelium
single layer of cubelike cells, functions in secretion and absorption; ciliated types of propelling mucus or reproductive cells LOCATION: common in glands and their ducts, forms walls of kidney tubules, covers the surfaces of ovaries
simple columnar epithelium
single layer of tall cells (GOBLET CELLS secrete mucus) LOCATION: lining of the digestive tract from stomach to the anus, mucous membranes (mucosae) line body cavities opening the exterior, functions in secretion and absorption
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
all cells rest on a basement membrane; single layer, but some cells are shorter than others giving a false (pseudo) impression of stratification LOCATION: respiratory tract, where it is ciliated and known as the pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium
most common stratified epithelium, named for cells present at the free (apical) surface, which are squamous, functions as a protective covering where the friction is common LOCATIONS: the lining of the... skin (outer portion), mouth and esophagus
stratified cuboidal epithelium
two layers of cuboidal cells; functions in protection
stratified columnar epithelium
surface cells are columnar and cells underneath vary in size and shape, functions in protection, both are rare in the human body LOCATION: found mainly in ducts of large glands
transitional epithelium
composed of modified stratified squamous epithelium, shape of cells depends upon the amount of stretching, functions in stretching and the ability to return to normal shape LOCATION: the lining of urinary system organs
stratified squamous epithelium, stratified cuboidal epithelium, stratified columnar epithelium
stratified epithelial tissues
glandular epithelia
one or more cells responsible for secreting a particular product
endocrine and exocrine glands
two major gland types that develop from epithelial sheets
endocrine glands
ductless; secretions (hormones) diffuse into blood vessels) ex.) include thyroid, adrenals, and pituitary
exocrine glands
secretions empty through ducts to the epithelial surface ex.) include sweat and oil glands, liver, and pancreas (both internal and external)
connective tissue
found everywhere in the body to connect body parts, includes the most abundant and widely distributed tissues
protein, support, binding
functions of connective tissue
variations in blood supply, some types are vascularized, some have poor blood supply or are avascular (none)
characteristics of connective tissue
extracellular matrix
nonliving material that surrounds living cells
ground substance and fibers
2 main elements of the extracellular matrix
ground substance
mostly water, along with adhesion protins and polysaccharide molecules
collagen (white) fibers, elastic (yellow) fibers, reticular fibers (a type of collagen)
bone (osseous tissue), cartilage, dense connective tissue, loose connective tissue, blood
types of connective tissue from most rigid to softest, or most fluid
bone (osseous tissue)
composed of osteocytes, hard matrix of calcium salts, large number of collagen fibers, and functions to protect and support the body
bone cells sitting in lacunae (cavities)
cartilage cell
less hard and more flexible than bone, found in only a few places in the body, chondrocyte is the major cell type TYPES: 8 cartilage: most WIDESPREAD type of cartilage, abundant collagen fibers hidden by a glassy, rubbery matrix LOCATION: trachea, attaches ribs to the breastbone, covers ends of long bones, entire fetal skeleton prior to birth; epiphyseal (growth) plates in long bones elastic cartilage: produces elasticity LOCATION: supports the external ear fibrocartilage: highly compressible LOCATION: forms cushion-like between vertebrae of the spinal column
dense connective tissue
dense fibrous tissue
dense fibrous tissue
main matrix element is collagen fiber, fibroblasts are cells that make fibers LOCATIONS: tendons, ligaments, dermis
attach skeletal muscles to bone
attach bone to bone at joints and are more elastic than tendons
lower lays of the skin
loose connective tissue
softer, have more cells and fewer fibers than other connective tissues (except blood)
areolar, adipose, and reticular
types of loose connective tissues
most WIDELY DISTRIBUTED CONNECTIVE TISSUE, soft pliable tissue like 'cobwebs', functions as a universal packing tissue and 'glue' to hold organs in place
adipose (fat)
FUNCTIONS: insulates the body, protects some organs, serves as a site of fuel storage LOCATIONS: subcutaneous tissue beneath the skin, fat 'depots' include hips, breasts, and belly
delicate network of interwoven fibers with reticular cells (like fibroblasts), form stroma (internal framework) of organs LOCATIONS: lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow
blood (vascular tissue)
blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix known as blood plasma, soluble fibers are visible only during clotting,functions as the transport vehicle for the cardiovascular system (nutrients, wastes, respiratory gases)
muscle tissue
function is to contract, or shorten, to produce movement
skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth (visceral) muscle
three types of muscle tissues
skeletal muscle
voluntary controlled CHARACTERISTICS: striations (stripes), multinucleate (more than one nucleus), long, cylindrical shape
cardiac muscle
involuntary controlled, found only in the heart CHARACTERISTICS: striations, one nucleus per cell, short, branching cells
intercalated discs
containing gap junctions to connect cells
smooth (visceral) muscle
found in walls of hollow organs such as stomach, uterus, and blood vessels; peristalsis, a wavelike activity, is a typical activity CHARACTERISTICS: no visible striations, one nucleus per cell, spindle-shaped cells
nervous tissue
function is to receive and conduct electrochemical signals to and from body parts (irritability and conductivity), composed of neurons and nerve support cells
regeneration and fibrosis
two ways of tissue repair
replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells
repair by dense (fibrous connective tissue, scar tissue)
clean cuts (incisions)
these heal more successfully than ragged tears of the tissue
epithelial tissue (skins and mucous membranes), fibrous connective tissues and bone
tissues that regenerate easily
skeletal muscle
tissues that regenerate poorly
cardiac muscle, nervous tissue within the brain and spinal cord
tissues that are replaced largely with scar tissue
cartilage type with a great deal of collagen in the matrix
tissue type that is actually modified areolar tissue
tissue type that stores lipid molecules
tissue type composed of Haversian systems
compact bone
hyaline cartilage
most common type of cartilage
dense fibrous connective tissue
strong tissue that forms tendons and ligaments
cancellous bone
tissue type associated with red bone marrow
dense fibrous connective tissue
tissue type that forms strong membranes
connective tissue that forms the disks between vertebrae
cancellous bone
tissue type that forms hard mineral trabeculae
goblet cell
a type of cell found in simple columnar and pseudostratified tissue that secretes mucus
exocrine glands
one of two kinds of glands, it secretes substances onto epithelial surfaces
a cellular organelle, it is a projection that moves substances along the surfaces
transitional epithelium
a type of epithelial tissue especially welly adapted to excessive stretching
mucous membranes secrete this water-based protein solution
a tough, waterproof material found in the upper layers of some examples of stratified squamous epithelium
simple cuboidal
the type of epithelial tissue likely to be found forming glands
keratinized stratified squamous
the type of epithelial tissue likely to be found on the palm of the hand
skeletal and smooth
voluntary type of muscle tissue
an involuntary type of muscle tissue is
which of these muscle tissues is striated?
which of these is most likely to be found in the wall of the urinary tract?
intercalated disks
cardiac muscle fibers are connected end-to-end by means of
skeletal muscle
which of these cells is likely to have multiple nuclei?
nerve tissuecontains cells called...
brain and vertebrae
nerve tissue forms the bulk of the...