Lecture 07

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-outermost layer -composed of epithelium -avascular -protects underlying layers
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-underlying layers -vascular & innervated -provides strength and resilience -composed of CT -contains smooth muscles (associated w/ hair follicles) and nerve fibers to detect and monitor sensory input
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Subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)
-composed of areolar and adipose CT -not technically part of the skin -anchors the skin to underlying structures -acts as a shock absorber & insulator
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Function of the ___ Protection -chemical barrier -physical barrier -biological barrier -temp. barrier -radiation (UV) barrier Prevention of Water Loss -water resistant Metabolic Regulation -vitamin D production -other minor metabolic roles Secretion & Absorption -small amounts of metabolic waste (water, salts, urea, etc.) -selectively permeable Immunity -identify and destroy pathogens -alerts immune system & initiates immune response
Function of the ___ Temp. Regulation -blood vessels -sweat glands -adipose Sensory Reception -mechanoreceptor (touch, pressure, vibration, etc.) -nociceptor (pain) -thermoreceptor (temperature)
Keratinocytes (cells of epidermis)
-most abundant -produces keratin (fibrous protein that forms intermediate filaments) that provides the protective properties of the skin -tightly connected to one another by desmosomes
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Melanocyte (cells of epidermis)
-have long, branching spiderlike processes -synthesize and store up the pigment of melanin in response to UV light -melanin granules are taken up by keratinocytes & accumulate on the superficial side of the nucleus to protect the nucleus from UV light
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From outer-to innermost layer
stratum corneum stratum lucidum stratum granulosum stratum spinosum stratum basale
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Epidermis consists of
-keratinized stratified, squamous epithelium -3 innermost layer consists of living cells -two outermost layers are dead cells
Stratum Basale
-deepest layer -attached to a basement membrane that separates it from the underlying dermis -epidermal ridges increase grip -single layer of cuboidal to low columnar cells *(most are keratinocytes) *(small population of melanocytes)
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Stratum Spinosum
-overlies the stratum basale -several layers thick -keratinocytes from basale differentiate into non-dividing, specialized keratinocytes -attached to neighbors by desmosomes results in spiny appearance
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Stratum Granulosum
-3 to 5 layers thick -keratinization *(keratinocytes produce keratohyalin (precursor to keratin) granules) *(nucleus and organelles begin to disintegrate) *(cells begin to die, due to lack of organelles & being pushed further away from source of nutrients) -won't be complete until after keratinocytes rise to superficial layer
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Stratum Lucidum
-thin, clear layer about 2-3 cell layers thick *(protects against friction) *(found only in thick skin on palms of hands and soles of feet) -cells have become flattened and featureless -filled with eleidin (an intermediate protein formed by keratohyalin) during keratin maturation *(helps protect skin from UV light)
Stratum Corneum
-most superficial layer -individual keratinocyte from stratum basale to strata corneum exists for about 4 weeks *(lost due to desaquamation) -15 to 30 layers of dead, scaly interlocked keratinized cells *(cells are anucleate) *(tightly packed together) *(contain large amounts of keratin) -protective, durable overcoat *(thickened plasma membrane enhanced by special glycoproteins waterproofs the strata corneum) *(relatively insensitive to biological, chemical, and physical assault)
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Thick Skin
-5 layers (contains stratum lucidum -found on palms of hands and soles of feet -contains sweat glands -lacks hair follicles and sebaceous glands
Thin Skin
-4 layers (lacks stratum lucidum) -covers most of the body -contains sweat glands, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands
Epidermal dendritic (Langerhans')
-found within strata spinosum and granulosum -phagocytic cell capable of stimulating immune response
-only pigment made in the skin -delivered to keratinocytes within melanosomes -everyone has the same relative number of melanocytes -varying shades of skin color reflects the amount of melanin produced and retained -freckles and pigmented moles are local accumulations of melanin
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-black/brown pigment
-red/yellow pigment
-yellow/orange pigment found in certain plants -accumulates in the stratum corneum & fatty tissues of the hypodermis
Tactile discs
-Merkel (tactile) cells (in stratum basale) -mechanoreceptors -small receptive fields -response to tactile stimulation help determine shape and texture of object *(fine touch) *(pressure)
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Free nerve endings
-responsible for pain -tickling (light touch) -itching (noxious stimuli)
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Epidermis produces Vitamin D
-vitamin D3 produced in the skin on exposure to UV light from a cholesterol precursor *(may also be absorbed in diet) -converted to its active form by 2 enzymatic reactions *(one in liver) *(one in kidney) -increases intestinal reabsorption of Ca2+ and (PO4)3-
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-cells are typical of those found in CT proper -richly innervated, vascularized -possesses lymphatic vessels -2 layers *(papillary layer) *(reticular layer)
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Papillary layer
-located near the superior surface -areolar CT
Dermal papillae
-small projections indenting into epidermis -contains free nerve endings = pain receptors, touch receptors -interdigit with epidermal ridges to increase area of contact and interlock the 2 layers
Reticular layer
-dense irregular CT underlying the papillary layer of the dermis *(mostly collagen fibers running parallel to the skin surface) -> creates "cleavage lines" *(contains elastin providing elasticity) -highly vascularized and innervated *(nerves allow us to distinguish diff. types of sensory stimuli) *(blood vessels supply nutrients for dermis and epidermis) *(blood vessels also play a role in temp. regulation) -possesses flexure lines *(dermal folds where dermis is tightly secured to deeper structures)
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Meissner's (tactile) corpuscle
-dermal papillae -light touch, pressure, and vibrations
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Pacinian (lamellated) corpuscle
-reticular layer of dermis -deep pressure & vibration
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Ruffiini corpuscle
-reticular layer among collagen bundles -pressure and skin distortion
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-flexible strands of dead keratinized cells produced by the hair follicle *("hard keratin") *(tougher and more durable) *(individual cells do not flake off)
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Function of ___ -protection *(head) sunburn and injury *(nasal and ear) traps particles *(eyes) prevent sweat and particles from endangering the eye -heat retention *(acts like a cap to prevent heat from escaping scalp) -sensory reception *(tactile receptors that detect light touch) -visual identification *(determining age and sex) *(identifying individuals) -chemical signal dispersion *(pheromones in axillary and pubic regions)
Shaft (structure of hair)
-projects above skin surface -dead epithelial cells
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Root (structure of hair)
-lies below the skin surface -dead epithelial cells
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Hair bulb (structure of hair)
-region at base of hair follicle -located deep in dermis -consists of living epithelial cells -origin of hair
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Hair papilla (structure of hair)
-possessing capillaries supplying nutrients and nerves (root hair plexus) of hair -hair matrix contains cells that become the hair shaft -contain hard keratin proteins
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Medulla (structure of hair)
-innermost portion -remnant of the matrix -loosely arranged cells containing soft, flexible keratin and air pockets
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Cortex (structure of hair)
-external to the medulla -several layers of flattened cells -hard keratin
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Cuticle (structure of hair)
-outer layer consisting of a single layer of cells -overlap one another (like shingles) away from the root
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Hair follicle
-folds down from the epidermis into the dermis -wall has 2 layers *(connective tissue root sheath) *(epithelial root sheath) -arrector pili muscle
Connective tissue root sheath
-derived from the dermis
Epithelial root sheath
-derived from the epidermis
Arrector pili muscle
-responsible for contraction of the hair follicle
-active phase -producing new hairs -pushes club hair out of follicle
-end of active phase
-resting phase for the follicle
Club hairs
-hair follicle is inactive
Lanugo hair
-fine, downy hair found on a fetus (third trimester)
Vellus hair
-replaces lanugo hair -fine, pale body hair
Terminal hair
-darker, thicker hair located on the head, axillary, and pubic regions -face and chest of adult males -hair growth is dependent on nutrition and hormones
Shaft shape determines the
-appearance of the hair
-kinky hair
-straight and coarse
-wavy hair
Hair pigment is made in the melanocytes
-found at the base of the follicle
Gray hair
-diminished melanin production
White hair
-no melanin production
-scalelike modifications of the stratum corneum *(compromised of hard keratin) -protect the distal tips of the digits -assist in grasping objects
3 parts of the nail
-nail plate -nail bed *(underlies the nail plate) -nail matric *(actively growing part of the nail) *(produces nail bed)
Lunula (structure of the nail)
-"white crescent" -most proximal portion of the nail plate
Eponychium ("Cuticle")
-thin strip of epithelium that protects the matrix
Sebaceous glands
-secretions *(secrete an oily substance called sebum) *(bactericidal) *(stimulated by hormones) -function as holocrine glands -usually secrete into hair follicles -secretions soften and lubricate hair and skin *(prevent excessive water loss) *(prevent bacterial growth)
Sudoriferous glands (sweat glands)
-scattered over the whole body (excluding nipples & genitals) -two types *(Merocrine (Eccrine) sweat glands) *(Apocrine sweat glands)
Structure of Aprocrine sweat gland
-located in axillary & anogenital regions -ducts empty into hair follicles
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Secretion of Apocrine sweat gland
-same basic components as eccrine sweat + some fatty substances & proteins -secretions are odorless but when decomposed by bacteria on the skin = body odor
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Merocrine sweat glands
-abundant on palms, soles, and forehead -sweat: hypotonic filtrate of the blood *(99% H2O) -3 functions -completely sympathetically regulated *(emotionally-induced sweating)
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3 functions of Merocrine sweat glands
-thermoregulation *(primary role of sweat is to prevent overheating of body) -excretion *(salts & metabolic wastes, such as urea) -protection *(antibodies & derminidin (anti-bacterial peptide))
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