to draw a reasonable conclusion based on information given.
An emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language.
a contrast between what is expected and what actually exists or happens. funny/add humor. Ex: Monster's Inc monsters being funny/silly, not scary
when something that is said explicitly is different than what is meant.
a character stepping out into a hurricane and saying, "What nice weather we're having!"
when the audience knows something the characters do not.
Ex: In Romeo and Juliet, the audience knows Juliet's not dead.
placing two elements side by side to present a comparison or contrast.
Ex: Dr Jekyll and Mr. Hide
litotes (Lie tote eeez)
understatement that uses negative terms to make a positive statement. Greek for simple or plain
Ex: *Not* bad (good)
sentence where *independent clause* comes first, followed by phrases or clauses to add details. Can be seen as relaxed or informal.
Ex: *Florida is a great vacation spot for families*, with Disney World, Universal Studios, and Sea World.
comparison of unlike things presenting similarities.
A figure of speech in which something is referred to by using the name of something that is associated with it.
Ex: The village swears to the crown (king)
Feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for the reader
The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events.
A word that imitates the sound it represents.
Ex: boom, pop.
a figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction
Ex: Jumbo Shrimp
A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity.
Ex: Ship of Theseus
grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity.
Ex: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times."
A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule.
Ex: Pride and Prejudice with Zombies
An adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish.
sentence whose main clause is withheld until the end
Ex: independent clause near the period
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes
Ex: The sun smiled down on us
intentionally employs a series of conjunctions not normally found in successive words, phrases or clauses; the deliberate and excessive use of conjunctions in successive words or clauses.
Ex: 'Neither snow *nor* rain *nor* heat *nor* gloom of night stays these couriers.
1st person pov
tells the story with the first person. pronoun, "I," and is a character in the story.
2nd person pov
where the narrator tells the story to another character using the word 'you.' (may not need)
3rd person pov
when someone not in the story tells the story (like an invisible observer)
An adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject.
Ex: The dog is *cute*
a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames or identifies the subject.
Ex: She is *a monster*
written or spoken language in its ordinary form, without metrical structure. Not poetry
Ex: A book that goes all the way to the ends of paper.
Repeating a word, phrase, or idea for emphasis or rhythmic effect.
Ex: Let it snow, Let it snow, Let it snow
the art of using language effectively and persuasively
exposition, description, narration, argumentation
explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion
re-create, invent, or visually present a person, place, event or action so that the reader can picture that being described.
rove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader
tell a story or narrate an event or series of events
not answered by the writer because its answer is obvious or obviously desired, and usually just a yes or no answer. used for effect, emphasis, or provocation, or for drawing a conclusionary statement from the fact at hand.
Ex: 'What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.'
bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something. may use irony, but not all ironic sentences are this.
Ex: "Well, what a surprise."
Hypophora is asked and immediately answered by the author, where a rhetorical question is left unanswered.
what's the difference between hypophora and a rhetorical question?
sarcasm is condescending and directed at a person, while verbal irony is simply saying the opposite of what is meant.
what's the difference between verbal irony and sarcasm?