Chapter 3: Social Structure and the Individual

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40 Terms
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Role Conflict
An inconsistency between two or more of the roles we fill
Social Groups
Two or more people with similar values and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis
Writer and social activist who spent a year trying to live on low-wage, low-status jobs and experienced first-hand the struggles of the working poor.
Social Structure
The set of social statuses, roles, groups, networks, and institutions that organize and influence the way people go about their lives
Achieved Status
Status that results from your efforts
Interdisciplinary scholar who highlighted how Black women's hairstyles influenced their ability to enter lucrative, high status occupations such as law, finance, and business consulting.
Ascribed Status
Status that is assigned to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents, efforts, or characteristics
Sociologist who argued that digital technology has transformed social networking
Classical social theorist who argued that social status is closely related to life chances
Social Institutions
The central domains of social life that guide our behaviors and meet our basic social needs
Feminist scholar who interviewed Black women about how they style their hair in order to understand beauty standards and how they can be changed
Social Roles
The set of expectations concerning the behavior and attitudes of people who occupy a particular social status
Social Network
A series of social relationships that link a person directly to other individuals and indirectly to even more people
Life Chances
The opportunities to provide yourself with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences
Social Statuses
A person or group's socially determined positions within a large group or society
The rules and expectations by which a group guides the behavior of its members
Micro-sociologist who developed symbolic-interaction theory
The socialization process by which we adopt new norms and identities
Sociologist who coined the phrase "the sociological imagination"
Macro-sociologist who argued that we make choices based on the resources available to achieve our goals
The Muslim practice of wearing a hijab or veil
The thoughts and feelings we have for ourselves as physical, social, and emotional beings
The analysis large scale social structures and forces
Cultural Capital
The knowledge, skills, behaviors and other valuable resources that help individuals achieve socio-economic success
Read and Bartowski
Authors of a study of Muslim women's attitudes towards wearing a veil
Sociological Imagination
An understanding of the interplay between social structure and agency
The analysis of individual identities and interactions
Agents of Socialization
The individuals, groups, and organizations that influence your sense of self and help you learn the ways of being a member of society
The process of evaluating our position in the social world, the rules we are expected to follow, and the resources we have at our disposal or can acquire
Symbolic Interaction
The study of human interaction by focusing on the words and gestures that people use and the meanings they create about the world
Looking-Glass Self
The way our perception of how others see us affects our sense of self
Sociologist who developed the concept of the looking-glass self
Sociologist who found that individuals are socialized into their gender identities, status, and roles from birth
The experiences that give us an identity and teach us how to be members of society.
Structure of Opportunity
The unequal distribution of resources and opportunities across society.
Kuhn and McPartland
Authors of the Twenty-Statements Test, which is used by sociologists and psychologist to measure self-concept
French sociologist who developed the concept of cultural capital
Generalized Other
The values and norms of the larger culture, that are used to guide your actions
Sociologist who argued that social experiences and interactions shape your identity.
Acting on your own will