biology: chapter 2: scientific method

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-light is illuminated -image appears 3D -larger specimen and not individual cells -magnifies about 20x(low)
compound light
-light is illuminated -2D images -can view individual cells -high magnification -the best magnification is 1500x
SEM, scanning electron microscope
-electron illumination -3D image -high resolution and magnification -coated in gold and the electrons bounce off to give an exterior view
TEM, transmission electron
-electron illuminated -2D image -can see inside -high resolution and magnification -thin slices of specimen are obtained -electron beams bounce off
depth of field
the number of layers you see
eye relief
distance the eye should be from the ocular lens
clarity and detail seen
field of view
the circle of light you see
total magnification
objective lens x ocular lens
increase in size, ratio of seen to real size
anton van leeuwenhoek
father of microscopes, ground lenses, looked at everything especially out of his body, invented one of the early decent microscopes, was an apprentice where magnifying glasses were used to count cloth, taught himself grinding and polishing methods, got a magnification up to 270 diameters
a way to solve a problem, steps u take to identify a question, that comes from observations and inferring, you develop a hypothesis, experiment, then document this
what is the scientific method
using your senses to take note of surroundings
logically, when you make an assumption or prediction about something u observe
logical interpretation
about something you already know
take time to think logically and break down things into many steps that make sense
when investigating a question what do scientists have to do?
a statement that can be tested and presents a possible solution to a question
multiply the ocular by the objective lens
how do you calculate the total magnification of a compound microscope
as the field of view increases, magnification _____________
control group
a part of the experiment that does not have the variable, is not being tested and is used for comparison
experimental group
a part of the experiment that has the independent variable and is being tested
independent variable
what is being manipulated, changed or tested for
dependent variable
what is being measured
the variables that remain the same between the two groups
-carry by the arm and the base -clean only with lens paper
what are some maintenance rules of a microscope
ocular lens
the body tube always contains the ________________
revolving nose piece
the objective lenses are always on the _________________
__________________ regulates light
qualitative observation
using your senses is described
quantitative observation
using a number
a cause and effect
what do u predict when making a hypothesis
micron symbol? (micrometers)
observing what happens and is writing it down
what is the key to experiments?
gathering information and data
what may change the hypothesis?
yes, to see if they get the same results
should you repeat your experiment more than once? why?
checking things out to make sure everything was valid and will happen again
help scientists learn from each other and use these experiences to help them with what they're studying or doing
what does sharing experiments do?