Leadership 210 Final Exam

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What are the four Group Structures according to Tuckman?
Testing and Dependence Intragroup conflict Development of group cohesion functional role-relatedness
What are the four Task Activity Developments according to Tuckman?
Orientation to the task Emotional response to the task Open exchange of relevant Interpretation Emergence of solution
What are the four phases a group goes through according to Tuckman?
forming, storming, norming, and preforming
Testing and Dependence goes along with what phase and task activity development?
Orientation to the task and forming
Intragroup conflict goes along with what phase and task activity development?
Emotional response to the task and storming
Development of group cohesion goes along with what phase and task activity development?
Open exchange of relevant Interpretation and norming
functional role-relatedness goes along with what phase and task activity development?
Emergence of solution and preforming
The first phase (forming) of group development means?
Members carefully explore both personal and group goals in this stage. They feel uncomfortable working with a group of strangers or unfamiliar colleagues trying to understand and test personal relationships.
The second phase (storming) of group development means?
People start to test established boundaries. Conflict or friction can arise between members as their true characters. and their preferred ways of working, surface and clash with other people's.
The third phase (norming) of group development means?
Members start learning to work as a cohesive team and be task-oriented.
The fourth phase (preforming) of group development means?
Members become fully engaged and eager to work at this stage.
Who wrote Developmental Sequence in Small Groups?
Bruce Tuckman
Who wrote Groupthink?
Irving Janis
Who said this quote, "How could we have been so stupid," in relation to the Bay of Pigs?
What is not an example of Groupthink? a. Rationale b. Morality c. Security d. Invulnerability
c. security
Which of the 8 symptoms of Groupthink is ‘protecting someone’s mind from conflict’? a. Stereotypes b. Self-Censorship c. Mind guards d. Invulnerability
c. mind guards
How does the Bay of Pigs disaster relate to the Cuban Missile Crisis? a. They are both demonstrate groupthink b. Each included yes-men that hindered the result c. Both required a unique set of followers d. Each situation dealt with different countries
c. Both required a unique set of followers
Tuckman wrote about the stages of small group development. Which of the following is NOT one of the simplified names for the stages he spoke about? a. Performing b. Roaring c. Norming d. Forming
b. Roaring
What type of leadership/followership philosophy was NOT shown in “Gandhi: I Know a Way Out”? a. Leit b. Sheep c. leadership d. Alienated followership
b. Sheep
What type of follower does a business that lacks self-confidence want? a. Passive b. Alienated c. Sheep d. Yes people
d. Yes people
"“It is seekers, then, who make prophets, and the initiative of any one of us in searching for and responding to the voice of contemporary prophets may mark the turning point in their growth and service” The excerpt was taken from which reading, please also state the author?
Servant Leadership by Greenleaf
What story was inspiration to Greenleaf's passage, Servant leadership?
Hesse's Journey to the East
In Ghandi: I know a way out, how does Servant Leadership appear?
Servant Leadership appears when Ghandi was fasting to stop violence. He was willing to help other people to solve a problem before he helped himself. (leit)
When do symptoms of group think arise?
when the members of decision-making groups become motivated to avoid being too harsh in their judgments of their leaders’ or their colleagues’ ideas.
Irvining Janis say that those that fall victim to group think are ____ and ____?
soft headed, hard hearted
What are the two characteristics of group think?
Norms and stress
“conformity tends to increase
internalization of group’s norms” (362)" This passage from Irving Janis refers to which of the characteristics of Group think?
Psychological pressure, esprit de corps refers to which characteristic of groupthink?
What are the 9 symptoms of group think?
invulnerability, rationale, morality, stereotypes, pressure, self-censorship, unanimity, mind guards
What are the nine stages to remedy group think
Assign a critical evaluator, adopt an impartial stance, setup outside groups to deliberate under different leaders, consult experts to challenge, one person become devil's advocate, consider rivals' intentions, meet in different small groups, hold a "second chance" meeting
What is Invulnerability as a symptom of group think?
being overly optimist and unable to get hurt
What is rationale as a symptom of group think?
justification to please the ingroup by discounting negative feedback.
What is morality as a symptom of group think?
belief within the ingroup that their actions are ethical and correct.
What is sterotypes as a symptom of group think?
certain views on leaders and enemy groups
What is pressure as a symptom of group think?
by going against the group, you will be pressured back into conformity (peer-pressure)
What is self-censorship as a symptom of group think?
silence due to self-doubts
What is unanimity as a symptom of group think?
conforming to avoid conflict
What is mind guards as a symptom of group think?
The protection of fellow member and leaders by blocking outside information, loyal to fault.
What are the Main Ideas of Followership from Kelley, "In Praise of Followers"?
Stepping up & stepping back relates to interchangeability of leaders & followers Kelley divides followers into 5 types (Sheep, "Yes" People, Alienated, Survivor, Effective) Emphasizes active role of effective followers Authority rests with followers (Chester Barnard quote)
What is the Significance of Bay of Pigs vs. Cuban Missile Crisis?
The Bay of Pigs Invasion was a failed military landing operation on the southwestern coast of Cuba in 1961 by Cuban exiles. So, when the communist Russia put missiles in Cuba targeted at the United States they refrained from action. The lessons learned from the Bay of Pigs helped to prevent the Cuban Missile Crisis.
What is the main idea of Hesse's Journey to the East?
H.H. decides to take a journey to the east for truth and spiritual renewal Leo the servant was spiritual and had great nature and suddenly disappears The members of the league turn against each other and unanimity in group was destroyed. Leo ended up being the president of the League. He was an example of a servant leader
What are the main ideas from the Clip from The Fog of War?
The fog of war shows the uncertainty in situational awareness experienced by participants in military operations. An example of groupthink - "we were attacked, I think..." (self-censorship)
“The decision as to whether an order has authority or not lies with the person to whom it is addressed, and does not reside in ‘persons of authority’ or those who issue orders” -Authority rests with followers Who said this quote and what excerpt was it taken from, include authors name?
Chester Barnard's quotation in Kelleys, In Praise of Followership
“The Dance [of leadership] goes on to describe this shift in the leadership relationship as a process of ’stepping back and stepping up.’ This is something other than traditional notions of delegating. Rather, there is a genuine shift in the relationship, in which someone steps back (whether they do it consciously or not) and someone steps up
” The quote above was taken from what excerpt, also state the author?
In Praise of Followership by Kelley
What are the 4 essential qualities of "effective followers"?
They manage themselves well They are committed to the organization and to a purpose, principle, or person outside themselves They build their competence and focus their efforts for maximum impact They are courageous, honest & credible
According to Kelley what is a sheep/passive follower?
These followers are dependent on the leader to tell them what needs to be done; critical thinking skills and initiative are not present.
According to Kelley what is a yes people (conformist) follower?
“Yes People” are actively engaged but with a proclivity for dependent, uncritical thinking. They rely heavily on a leader for inspiration
Alienated followers are highly independent critical thinkers but are low in engagement (Kelley, 1992). They think for themselves, but instead of being positive like exemplary followers, who proactively provide alternative solutions to the leader, alienated followers are negative critical skeptics
According to Kelley what is a survivor follower?
These followers will fluctuate between the other four types of followers and live by the motto “better safe than sorry”
According to Kelley what is an effective follower?
The “effective follower” is an intelligent, motivated, and self-reliant individual who is driven by a desire to support a vision or cause that they understand objectively and believe in