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APUSH Chapter 1 Notes

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Time Period of chapter 1
33,000 BC to 1769 CE
Canadian Shield
Zone undergirded by ancient rock, first part of North American landmarks
Regions
Biomes formed during the Ice Age , rivers begin to cross thru America
America's Geography
Made America nearly unraidable
Incas
Indians in Peru, sophisticated rock building
Aztecs
Mexico, complex civilizations, advanced agriculture
Animal Roles
Travel, building, and farming which propelled civilizations
Nation-States
Comparable to Aztecs, outside of the main nation
Cahokia
Mississippian Settlement relying on corn with a population of 25,000
Three Sister Farming
Use of Maize, Beans, and Rice. Each plant helped another grow. Gave Natives a better diet, used by Cherokee and Choctaw tribes
Corn
Main product of Native Americans, staff of life and foundation
Terraform
Native's wanted to keep the natural landscape but newcomers would alter it to their liking for their purposes
Europe's Trade
Drive toward Asia, African penetration, and accidental discovery of North America
Crusades
Took military control in the land of Islam, caused European exploration. Europe lost, which created a higher demand for trade
Middlemen
Muslims who had a rough time en route for spices
Caravel
A type of sail on a ship that could go with or against wind
Plantation
Large, commercial agriculture for exploitation of slave labor. Shaped the destiny of the new world
Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China
Columbian Exchange
Exchange between Europeans and Natives, combination of old and new worlds
Treaty of Tordesillas
Dividing land with Portugal and Spain from Columbus
Encomienda
Government commended Indians to colonists to Christianize them
Noche Triste
Sad night, Aztecs drove the Spanish down
Black Legend
Conquerers tortured and butchered Indians, stole everything and greatly effecting their ways of life
Capitalism
Economic system from Europe that balanced its money
Mestizo
Mixed Indians with European heritage
Conquistadors
Spanish leaders who conquered the Native lands
Battle of Acoma
Spanish victory, cut off a foot of all surrendering Indians
Pope's Rebellion
Surpressing Native Religions for Catholicism
Glaciers
Shaped geography
Where did our ancestors most likely come from?
China over the Beringa land bridge
2nd Migration
Travel through water
Cultures
Each tribe adapted to local environment, 54 mil people and 2000+ languages
Paleolithic
Ended nomads, no longer a need for constant travel
Ahasazi
Certain way of apartment style and hunting style
Mississippian Culture
Built mounds to avoid floods, fertile soil
Eastern Woodlands
Longhouses, communal property, live with the environment, Iroquois
Norse
First europeans to visit America in Vinland, did not spread word
Leif Erikson
First Viking to locate America in 1001, reached Vinland in Canada
Astrolabe
Told latitude but not longitude
European Society
Men and nobility had power, little to no inheritance
Africa
Europe was aware but never made contact, traded with the Portuguese, took gold and slaves, founded American plantation systems
Columbus' Ships
Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria which found the Bahamas
Ecosystem
Impacted from unintentional spread of plants, diseases, and animals
Pope 1493
Divides Spain and Portugal
Brazil
Only land in Portuguese territory
Balboa
First European to see Pacific by crossing Panama
Magellan
Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain; he commanded an expedition that was the first to circumnavigate the world
Ponce de Leon
Spanish explorer who accompanied Columbus on his second trip in 1493; in 1513 he discovered Florida while searching for the legendary Fountain of Youth
Cibola
Mystical city of gold never found, probably in Coronado
De Soto
Explored the Mississippi River
Mayans
Focus on calendars and astronomy
Legend of Quetzicoati
Pizarro
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima
Smallpox
Most devestating disease to the Natives
Pope's Rebellion 1680
Kill Priests and destroy Catholic settlements
King Phillip
Protected colonists from the muslims
Viceroy
governor of a country or province who rules as the representative of his or her king or sovereign