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Topic 5 Lesson 2

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peninsular
in Spanish colonial America, a person born in Spain
creole
in Spanish colonial America, an American-born descendant of Spanish settlers
mestizo
in Spanish colonial America, a person of Native American and European descent
mulatto
in Spanish colonial America, a person of African and European descent
simĂłn bolĂ­var
a South American soldier and leader who was instrumental in the revolutions against Spain. He was born into wealth and educated in Spain. After France invaded Spain, he became involved in the resistance movement and played a key role in the Latin American fight for independence. He died in 1830 from tuberculosis.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
was born in Haiti as the son of an educated slave. He led an army of slaves, who he trained in guerrilla warfare, in a revolt against the French colonists. He was captured in 1802 by French forces and died in prison a year later.
Father Miguel Hidalgo
a Catholic priest in Mexico. He led Indians and mestizos in a revolution against the Spanish until he was captured and killed in 1811.
Father José Morelos
a Catholic priest who took command of the revolutionary movement after Father Miguel Hidalgo's death. He led the movement throughout southern Mexico, and in 1813, he called the Congress of Chilpancingo to form a government. In 1815 he was captured and executed as a traitor.
José de San Martín
was born in Argentina and educated in Spain. He helped lead the revolutions against Spanish rule in Argentina, Chile, and Peru. He became protector of Peru after its liberation from Spain but resigned in 1822 after conflict with SimĂłn BolĂ­var. He lived in exile in Europe after his resignation.
Dom Pedro
the second and final emperor of Brazil. Pedro II turned Portugese-speaking Brazil into an emerging power. He created political stability and sought to protect freedom of speech and civil rights. Dom Pedro's government was a parliamentary monarchy. Under his leadership, Brazil experienced significant economic growth. His reign ended in 1889 after a military coup took control of the government and forced him into exile in Europe.