Conditioning Review

0.0(0) Reviews
Report Flashcard set

Spaced Repetition

spaced repetition





Practice Test



70 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (70)
SG1: main purpose of Conditioning for dancers
to help dancers maintain a healthy lifestyle + peak physical performance through education and understanding; a resource that contains other resources
SG1: What are the seven physical capacities?
Alignment, Coordination, Flexibility, Strength, Aerobic Endurance, Relaxation, Body Composition
SG1: Alignment
body placement or posture, balancing the bones, allows dancers to move with efficiency
SG1: Coordination
the ability to use different parts of the body together smoothly and efficiently, connection between body and mind
SG1: Flexibility
a broad range of motion in one's muscles and joints
SG1: Strength
the body's ability to produce and exert force; includes muscular strength, muscular endurance, and power
SG1: Aerobic Endurance
the body's ability to sustain high-level physical exercise for an extended period of time through a steady supply of oxygen to muscles
SG1: Relaxation
the ability to release unnecessary tension in the body
SG1: Body Composition
the percentage of fat, muscle, and bone in the human body, a healthy comp optimizes a dancer's performance
SG1: What makes dance an especially demanding physical activity?
dancers are required to have a high ability in all of these physical capacities, as opposed to some other athletes
SG1: What benefits might dancers receive by improving these capacities?
reduce injury risk, optimize performance, overall healthy dancers w/ capacity to grow + longer career
SG2: What are the three major principles of physical conditioning and the two corollary principles which are paired with them?
Major: adaptation, specificity, progressive overload Corollary: reversibility (with adaptation), compensation (with progressive overload)
SG2: Adaptation
challenging the body to work beyond its comfort zone in order to expand capacities and abilities
SG2: Specificity
the way in which one trains should mimic the skills, movements, and actions that one wants to improve upon; targeted training in the body results in an increase in these capacities
SG2: Progressive Overload
a continual increase in the total workload while training (in a fast and safe manner) in order to increase capacities over time; challenges should increase gradually
SG2: Reversibility
if you don't continue maintaining and challenging a capacity, it will diminish over time; use it or lose it
SG2: Compensation
working too far beyond your abilities, which leads to injuries and bad habits
SG2: How does understanding the principles facilitate your dance training?
understanding principles=understanding how body develops + maintains capacities and how one can become stronger in a safe and effective manner
SG2: What is the first clue that tells use we are exceeding our current capacities and violating the principle of progressive overload?
SG3: What is the "indestructo" phenomenon?
the idea that if one has never had a serious injury, they will never get injured - younger dancers more susceptible bc less likely to have been injured
SG3: Traumatic vs. overuse injuries
Traumatic (acute): happen suddenly, often result of a fall, impact, or misstep -ex. torn ACL Overuse: builds up over time, results from pushing body past its limits, weaknesses, or working out of alignment -ex. tendonitis
SG3: What does it mean when an injury becomes chronic?
chronic injuries are never-ending, reoccur if ignored or if rehabilitation is incomplete
SG3: Symptoms of "itis" injuries (4 + summary term)
heat + redness + swelling + pain = inflammation
SG3: What is the general cause of dance injuries?
exceeding our current capacities, either temporarily by a lot, or repeatedly by a little
SG3: 5 steps in care for dance injuries
Rest: get off the injured part to protect from more harm Ice: cool injured part, reduces swelling (20 min, 2-3x day) Compression: squeeze tissue around injury enough to prevent swelling, wrap towards heart of injury Elevation: raise site of injury above heart to allow body to reabsorb fluid in tissue Referral: get injury assessed by healthcare provider for advice + treatment
SG3: What is a substitute for ice if needed?
cold tap water run over injury
SG3: 3 things in addition to RICE to help healing
Heat: can increase blood flow to injured area once swelling subsides, relaxes muscles Ant-inflammatory meds: reduce inflammation and facilitate healing Selective rest: avoid activity that irritates or puts injury at risk, but keep rest of body active
SG3: If unsure, heat or ice?
ice, as heat can make swelling worse
SG4: What four alignments are essential for dancers?
1. Knees over centers of feet 2. Arches vertical 3. Front of pelvis vertical 4. Rib cage vertical over pelvis
SG4: What are the benefits of good alignment?
makes dancers feel + look longer, makes movement more efficient in joints and muscles, reduces injury
SG4: "Feel it" cues for each alignment
1. Knees: knees over feet and feet under knees 2. Arches: equal pressure, three points on bottom of foot 3. Pelvis: balance pelvis on heads of femurs 4. Rib cage: four points together in center of body
SG4: What is a quick way to see if a dancer's foot is in neutral alignment?
through the Achilles; vertical line = neutral, parentheses shape = supination, inside-out parentheses = pronation
SG4: What misalignment of the pelvis is common for beginning dancers? Why?
anterior tilt due to lack of control in abs + lack of awareness of forced turnout
SG4: What misalignment of the pelvis is common for dancers with training? Why?
posterior tilt due to overcorrection and feeling like this engagement is them trying and working hard
SG4: Four tools dancers can use to correct misalignments
1. Awareness: understanding how to see + feel alignment and cueing correct alignment 2. Strengthening: building strength + activating muscles that support good alignment 3. Stretching: stretching muscles that prevent good alignment 4. Relaxing: relaxing muscles that create unnecessary tensions or compensations
SG5: 4 aims of a well-designed warm-up
1. Increases blood flow 2. Lubricates joints 3. Activates muscles and nerves 4. Focuses your attention
SG5: What types of exercises work best to get the body warm quickly?
exercises working larger muscle groups with control through full range of motion, movements that increase blood flow + feel like dancing
SG5: Why are detailed and isolated exercises usually in beginning of class not ideal for warm-up?
don't move much blood, therefore not sufficient as a warm-up on their own
SG5: Which is better for warm-up: static stretching or full-body movements?
full-body; increase circulation, warm up body quickly, static stretching better for cool-down
SG5: 3 phases of a well-designed cool-down
1. Gradually return body to pedestrian level of activity 2. Stretch muscle groups used intensively 3. Release unnecessary tension
SG5: What benefits can you expect from cool-down?
prevents blood pooling in extremities, reduced soreness, releases muscles to prevent accumulation of tension
SG6: How can building strength benefit dancers?
allows dancers to move with more control, movements more graceful, larger jumps easier, lifts and partnering more seamless, prevents injury
SG6: What are the differences between the type of strength dancers need and type of strength other athletes need?
requires highly refined strength, muscles harder to access, requires intense specificity (cannot use normal gym equipment usually, but helpful in moderation)
SG6: Summarize the guidelines for building strength
Start from place of perfect alignment, use movements similar to dance movement you wish to improve, moving with control through fullest range of motion. Begin with a resistance that allows for 4 reps w/ correct alignment, increasing reps to 8 as strength builds, then increase resistance and reduce to 4 reps. Work 2x per week to maintain, 3x to increase.
SG6: What is a useful way for dancers to do multi-set exercises?
do a variety of exercises that work the same muscle group - same benefits + adds variety
SG6: How long does it take to make noticeable change, what are the risks of rushing it?
5-6 weeks, sooner w/ untrained muscle groups; rushing can cause overuse injury or build improper strength due to misalignment
SG6: What do we want to/not want to stretch?
target: muscles + associated connective tissue (tendons) avoid: ligaments
SG6: Describe three stretching methods instead of ballistic
1. Slow, sustained: placing body in position, then let gravity pull muscles longer PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation): 2. Hold Relax: muscle groups contracted against immovable resistance for 8-10 sec, then muscle allowed to relax/lengthen 3. Slow Reversal Hold Relax: Contraction of muscles on opposite side of body to encourage muscles you're trying to stretch to relax after engaging them
SG6: When does working on flexibility most benefit dancers?
when muscles are warm - they are warm, pliable, willing
SG6: Summarize the guidelines for stretching
Determine which muscles need to be lengthened, warm up your body. Then, use all three stretching techniques to lengthen muscles + facilitate the stretch, encouraging a release of tensions. Stretch for 30-90 sec 2x a day to increase, 1x a day to maintain.
SG7: What is aerobic endurance?
body's ability to supply your muscles with the oxygen they need to continue working over extended periods
SG7: What benefits do dancers get from aerobic training?
necessary for aerobically-demanding choreography, allows dancers to work at higher level over longer time w/out injury, healthy body comp
SG7: General recipe for improving aerobic capacity
engage in activity that increases heart rate to 75% of its max, sustain for 20-30 min, 2-3x a week
SG7: About how many weeks to see improvement in aerobic capacity?
~6 weeks
SG7: Formula for maximum heart rate
MHR = 220-age
SG7: Formula for aerobic training target
ATT = MHR*0.75
SG7: What does VO2max measure?
the amount of oxygen your body is able to process as your heart rate peaks; most valid measure of aerobic fitness
SG7: How to get quick estimate of heart rate
pause exercise, take pulse for 6 sec, add a 0
SG7: How can you tell if you're working too hard?
If you cannot talk or carry on convo, prob working too hard
SG7: Why do dancers need to relax?
reduce discomfort, key to efficient movement, new movement quality, helps to look + feel confident
SG7: How is imagery useful to release tension?
allows effort to focus where needed, useful on stage, enhances release of tension, integrates movement patterns
SG8: 4 macronutrients + main functions
1. Water: body largely made up of water, cools down, eliminates waste 2. Protein: build + repair body tissue, make blood, hormones, antibodies 3. Fat: insulates organs/nerves, make hormones, carry vitamins, store energy 4. Carbohydrates: fuel muscles we need to function, continuous stream of energy
SG8: Micronutrients most at risk for missing, how to increase chances of getting them all?
calcium, iron, potassium, zinc, fiber; eat variety of nutrient dense foods
SG8: What does %BF mean?
percent body fat - measurement of proportion of fatty tissue to whole body mass
SG8: What is the essence of staying lean, how to stay lean without compromising health?
burn as many calories as you consume, reduce # of calories + add well tailored exercise program to change body comp
SG8: What is the problem with dieting?
temporary!! Instead, change habits long-term
SG8: 10 Guildelines for Eating to Dance Well
1. 8 cups of water per day 2. Variety of nutrient dense foods 3. Schedule meal times 4. Breakfast + 2 other meals, no more than 4 hrs w/out food 5. Carry healthy snacks 6. Complex carbs 2-3 hrs before performing 7. Aerobic + strength training when restricting calories 8. No diet, change habits 9. Body fat reduction during off season 10. Low-fat alternatives
SG9: Major sections of each exercise description
-Benefits -Exercise description w/ photos -Alignment + execution priorities -Challenges + reminders -Progressions + variations -Descriptions by others
SG9: Which principle of conditioning would adding resistance, repetitions, or sets facilitate?
progressive overload
SG9: What is the general breathing pattern recommended in this book? Is it the only valid breathing pattern?
-breathe out to facilitate spinal flexion, breathe in to facilitate spinal extension -breathe out on most effortful part of movement -different patterns can be used, but these generally facilitate movement