A tumulus/tumuli is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
Tumulus = house of the dead
Most cities did not want people burying their dead in the city. They would make a city for the dead
Necropolis = City of the dead
More people could have sarcophaguses.
The Etruscans would show people lying on top of them.
It symbolized the epicenter of the Roman empire and housed the most important temples in the city.
Idk ask Meredith it's a hill.
It had that pillar with the story of the Romans winning a war
it also had the equestrian statue of Marcus Aralias
"council of elders" the senate was the main legislative body in Roman constitutional government.
The roman social class that included small farmers, merchants, and freed slaves.
A painting method in which pigment is mixed with melted wax and applied to the surface while the mixture is hot.
Latin for "eye". it was the large center opening of a dome
The Pax Romana is a roughly 200-year-long timespan of Roman history which is identified as a period and as a golden age of increased as well as sustained Roman imperialism
great peace, stability, and economic prosperity.
in roman architecture, a free-standing arch commemorating an important event, such as a military victory or the opening of a new road.
was the volcano that erupted and destroyed Pompeii.
it had been long dormant up until that point.
The town of Pompeii was the Las Vegas of the ancient world.
The public square of ancient Rome.
People would gather there to share ideas and discuss things.
True to nature or appearance, super realistic.
In ancient Rome, there were portraits of one's ancestors.
Romans took great pride in what cam before them, and in building onto the legacy of the past.
Elevated to the rank of gods, or to ascend to heaven.
condemnation of memory.
The complete removal of a n individual from art and text and history in order to destroy the very memory of them.
The Ara Pacis Augustae is an altar in Rome dedicated to Pax, the Roman goddess of Peace.
"Altar of Augustan Peace", was built to commemorate the return to Rome of the emperor Augustus and his general Agrippa, who had been away for many years on military campaigns.
"of all gods" it is the temple to all gods.
latin for "first citizens". it was the title Augustus and his successors used to distinguish themselves from the Etruscan monarchs who ruled before them.
What is Etruscan Orientalizing?
Art mainly consisted of items w/ "purpose" tombs, fibulas, architecture, etc.
They made and traded away many valuable goods and were known for their craftsmanship.
What is Etruscan Archaic?
The emergence of figures and carved sarcophaguses.
Most figures had an archaic smile.
Women and men often depicted in romantic ways.
Bronze is more commonly used but is still in an earlier stage of understanding.
What is Etruscan Classical and Hellenistic?
No longer had the archaic smile.
strong attention to detail.
The more somber mood in classical and Hellenistic Etruscan works.
They have at this point mastered bronze casting leading to much more advanced features.
The Etruscans had at this point mostly fallen to the Romans and were under their control to some extent.
What is Roman Republic?
The first period in roman history. This took place after the monarchy of the Etruscans. Much of this art featured busts and wise old men.
often had the heads of old men contrasted against strong young, muscular bodies.
What is roman Early empire?
the second period in roman history. Saw the first true emperors come into power before this the emperor/dictator was only a temporary position.
with the first emperors also came many great construction projects so that the emperors could give back to the people.
What is roman High Empire?
The Best period in Rome. The five good emperors. The emperors used art to try and show how wise they were. They loved to refer back to the Greeks. The great emperors made many contributions to Roman culture. They had huge roads and were basically the world's monolith.
What is Roman Late empire?
The decline of Rome. It is very visible in the art as there was a notable decline in craftsmanship. The art often emphasized the power of the emperors. They would try to make themselves look like boxers. Huge men with bulky features. They did not try to refer back to the wisdom of the Greeks.
Under Rome, it was the idea that the emperor had a responsibility to give back to the people and to make things for them with the wealthy he acquired.
a reminder of one’s mortality. They are trying to prevent hubris.
Recessed panel that go into the dome The dome seems like its floating because its not lined up. They get thinner as they go up the dome
One of the wedge-shaped stones used in constructing an arch.
thick hardened leather vest wore for battle. Not decorative armor.
a central stone at the summit of an arch, locking the whole together.
the emperors during the late empire.
a Roman emperor who seized power by virtue of his command of the army.
These emperors did not value civic duty or respect what came before them.
They often depicted themselves as brutes or wrestlers.
the five good emperors
Widely considered the best rulers of ancient Rome, the Five Good Emperors brought prosperity to the Empire, taking Roman civilization to its apex.
These five emperors ruled during the high empire.
All valued civic duty and built lots of things for their people.
Their depictions often referred back to the Greeks.