Biology 2: exam 3

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GMOs (alternative plant nutrition
Plant cells can be transformed like bacterial cells undifferentiated meristematic cells can be transformed and induced to regrow into a full plant transformed apical meristem cells give rise to flowers and seeds which will grow into a transgenic plant pros: increased crop yields, less pesticides necessary, healthier produce. cons: genes escaping into wild populations
carnivorous plants
Plants digest insects for inorganic nutrients (N, P, K ) that most plants get through roots; this allows carnivorous plants to grow in nutrient- poor environments where most other plants can't. Some trap aquatic animals with underwater traps. Some attract animals which poop/pee into them as 'fertilizer.' Still green, still photosynthetic with light as the energy source, still use atmospheric CO2 as their carbon source= Photoautotrophic, even though their inorganic nutrients come from eating animals (or poop/pee). There are any origins of carnivory (including 3 different independent origins of 'pitcher' plants).
Mycotrophic plants:
exploit the mutualistic relationship that almost all plant roots have with fungi. Mycotrophs no longer give sugar back to their fungal root associates, but still accept inorganic nutrients as well as stealing organic nutrients that indirectly come from nearby photosynthetic plants whose roots are also associated with the same fungus. Nonphotosynthetic mycotrophs are chemoheterotrophic like you and me. Many different independent transitions to mycotrophy accompanied by losses of photosynthesis
Parasitic plants
directly attach to other plants and steal organic and inorganic nutrients directly from the host plants' xylem and phloem. Some are still green and do some photosynthesis for themselves (partially photoautotrophic/partially chemoheterotrophic, e.g. mistletoe), but many lack chlorophyll entirely and extract all nutrients and carbon from a host plant (fully chemoheterotrophic). Some live completely inside another plant except for when their flowers burst out (this includes the largest single flower in the world, Rafflesia).
Fungi are In the Eukaryote supergroup Unikonta, relatively close to animals but independently transitioned from unicellular to multicellular. Most of a fungus's mass is in long strands of haploid cytoplasm/cells known as Hyphae. A mass of hyphae is known a Mycelium. Mushrooms and similar fungal structures are the reproductive form of fungi, although they are only a small portion of an individual fungus's mass and are usually short-lived compared to the hyphae in the substrate. (fig. 26.13)
Hyphae release digestive enzymes into the surrounding environment and then absorb nutrients; absorptive feeders. -Fungal hyphae may parasitize other living organisms or decompose already dead organic matter. Some fungi with specialized hyphae can trap nematodes (tiny roundworms), while some are specialized to extract carbohydrates from plant roots in exchange for donating inorganic nutrients to the plant cells (N, P, K)= mycorrhizae. Fungal cell walls are made out of the nitrogen-infused polysaccharide chitin: same material as arthropod exoskeletons!
Fungi lineages
5 lineages, two of them are major Chytridiomycota zygomycota glomeromycota ascomycetes basidiomycetes
Live in water and make flagellated haploid spores similar to the unicellular relatives of fungus or sperm in animals, most famous for one species that causes a disease that recently has been killing many of the world's amphibians (Chytridiomycosis).
Very resistant spores made from the zygote that can survive in outer space/microwave (diploid cells formed from fusion of unrelated haploid hyphae).
Form specialized mycorrhizal hyphae that actually grow inside plant root cells (penetrate the cell wall but not the cell membrane) to donate inorganic nutrients in exchange for sugars.
Hyphae from 2 different individual haploid fungi come together and join into one hypha, but nuclei do not fuse: Dikaryotic= cells with 2 haploid nuclei The haploid nuclei fuse into one diploid nucleus (zygote) for recombination only in reproductive cells, each of which becomes the Ascus, a sac containing 8 haploid Ascospores produced through meiosis Many Ascomycetes also produce asexual spores during their haploid stage from pinching off a cellular piece of hypha with a nucleus Ascomycete fruiting bodies have many shapes- often flat discs, but some look more like traditional mushrooms (e.g. morels) Some ascomycetes exist in a single-celled life stage known as yeasts, which asexually bud to increase numbers; some yeasts never reproduce sexually and never have a diploid stage. We usually think of evolution going from simple to more complex, but many fungal lineages (lots of ascomycetes and some basidiomycetes) have independently gone from multicellular hyphal ancestors to single-celled yeasts.
Sexual life cycle very similar to Ascomycetes: hyphae from 2 different individual haploid fungi grow together, but nuclei do not fuse: Dikaryotic= each cell with 2 haploid nuclei- a mushroom is made of dikaryotic mycelium Nuclei fuse for recombination in a diploid cell that becomes the basidium (zygote), which makes 4 dangling haploid spores through meiosis. Usually no asexual reproductive stage in basidiomycetes Includes all mushrooms with gills (flaps) below their caps (including grocery store mushrooms, Shiitakes, Portobellos, etc.), bracket fungi, puffballs, and even some yeasts (again, single-celled fungi evolved from a multicellular ancestor), etc.- very diverse, but all will have basidia with 4 dangling spores under a microscope
Fungi that people like
Hallucinogenic Mushrooms Mycorrhizae: beneficial root associations with the vast majority of plant species Antibiotics: Fungi frequently compete for food resources with bacteria, produce chemicals that inhibit bacterial growth (antibiotics)- Penicillin, etc. Brewers/bread yeast- alcohol production also keeps down competition for resources from bacteria, other fungi: ethanol for booze and biofuel, etc.
Sister group to animals are single celled organisms called choanoflagellates. Characteristics of animals include: 1) ability to ingest food and digest it internally with enzymes 2) multicellular with no cell walls - held together by proteins (collagen and cadherines 3) formation of a blastula/gastrula 4) origin around 770 million years ago. most animal phyla appeared during cambrian explosion
Earliest animals, radial symmetry/tissue layers, and invertebrates
Earliest animals were probably gastrula-like with specialized cells for reproduction (gamete production) radial symmetry: animals with multiple axis of symmetry, typically have two tissue layers endoderm which is the gut lining and ectoderm which is the outer layer. Invertebrates: animals that lack a backbone. Is defined by an ancestral characteristic, and would therefore be a paraphyletic group. 97% of described animal specifies are invertebrates
Phylum porifera: Sponges
The first branching lineage of animals No specialized tissues (some cells are individually specialized but can shift and change function rather than being part of a permanent tissue type), some radially symmetric, most with no symmetry at maturity Filter gallons of water a day through their body cavities to catch food particles Often have added structural support and predator defense from silica or calcium carbonate Spicules Internal cells (choanocytes) of many species nearly identical in form to Choanoflagellates
Phylum ctenophora: Comb jellies
Phylum previously considered to possibly be a basal animal. Superficially similar to true 'jellyfish' (Phylum Cnidaria) and used to be grouped with them, but Ctenophores differ in locomotion by rows of cilia. Similar to a big gastrula.
Phylum placozoa
phylum previously considered to possibly be a basal animal Simple, pancake-like animals ~ 1mm that behave like a multicellular amoeba and move with cilia. Probably branched off after Porifera and Ctenophora and are a result of simplification/reduction of an ancestor that probably had tissues.
Phylum Cnidaria
After diverging from sponges, Cnidarians share a common ancestor with other animals that have symmetry and tissues (common grouping of specialized cells like muscle and nerve tissue), but they only have 2 tissue layers (endoderm and ectoderm). •All have radial symmetry (symmetrical in many planes, not just a left and right side), and all but a few have stinging cells called cnidocytes to capture food •Wide range of sessile (anchored, non-moving) and floating forms: includes jellyfish, anemones, corals, and hydra. •A single opening to a gastrovascular cavity functions as both mouth and anus •Corals have endosymbiotic, photosynthetic alveolates from the S.A.R. clade (dinoflagellates called zooxanthellae) living between their endoderm and ectoderm tissue layers; the Cnidarian polyps provide an environment with more inorganic nutrients and carbon dioxide for the endosymbiont in exchange for sugar (very similar relationship to lichens & mycorrhizal fungi); Coral bleaching comes from expulsion of the zooxanthellae shortly before the Cnidarian dies
Bilateral symmetry
Bilateral Symmetry evolved after Sponges and Cnidarians had already diverged from other animals; bilaterally symmetric animals all have 3 tissue layers with a mesoderm layer filling in space between the endoderm and ectoderm •Bilateral animals have:- A dorsal (top) side and a ventral (bottom) side A right and left side that are approximately symmetrical Anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends Having a distinct mouth often leads to cephalization, the development of a head
means "first mouth;" initial indentation during gastrulation becomes the mouth, anus forms second, after the gastrointestinal tract has grown through to the opposite end of the embryo (not all "protostomes" develop mouth-first) 2 major groups of Protostomes, Lophotrochozoa & Ecdysozoa
means "second mouth;" initial indentation during gastrulation becomes the anus, mouth forms after the gastrointestinal tract has grown through to the other side. You have deuterostome development (first recognizable feature is the anus).
Phylum Platyhelminthes: flatworms
part of the lophotrochozoa group •Simple body plan is probably similar to Acoela & ancestral bilateral animals •Includes some human parasites (tapeworms, liver flukes)
Phylum Mollusca
part of the lophotrochozoa group includes snails & slugs, oysters, clams, octopi and squid •Largest marine phylum by species - although some inhabit fresh water, some are terrestrial (some snails & slugs) •All are anatomically separated into head, foot, and mantle Bivalves, Gastropods, & Cephalopods- gastro=stomach, cephalo=head, pod=foot •Soft-bodied animals, generally protected by a hard shell (may be reduced or lost as in slugs, octupi) •Includes lots of human food (clams, oysters, calamari, escargo), range of eye complexity (octopi are particularly complex with lenses and retinas convergently evolved in a similar structure as vertebrate eyes); cephalopods have also convergently evolved a complex, closed circulatory system like vertebrates 40% of recorded animal extinctions have been molluscs (mostly freshwater mussels and snails which are very sensitive to pollution and siltation of rivers)
Phylum Annelida, segmented worms
part of the Lophotrochozoa group. Segmented Bodies- convergent evolution with arthropods includes Earthworms, Leeches, many intertidal saltwater species and tubeworms Tubeworms have chemoautotrophic bacteria living in their tissues (use energy from H2S chemical bonds to make carbohydrate chains from CO2); help form the base of the food chain in some places at the bottom of the ocean even where there is no light
Ecdysis: molting skin/exoskeletons. Nematodes and arthropods outgrow their hard outer coating, and must shed and replace it
Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms
part of the ecdysozoa group. •Many parasites of plants and animals (including humans!) •Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is an important research organism: 1st animal genome to be completely sequenced; tiny genome, reproduces quickly, only 1000 cells, and the fate of each cell is mapped from zygote to maturity.
Phylum Arthropoda: jointed animals
part of the ecdysozoa group. Arthropods are segmented invertebrates with jointed appendages and exoskeletons and include the following lineages: Crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, shrimp, barnacles, roly- poly/pillbugs), Chelicerates (horseshoe crab, scorpions, spiders, ticks, mites, etc.) Myriapods (millipedes, centipedes) Hexapods (insects) also Trilobites (extinct) Arthropoda includes two thirds of all described species of animals; Crustaceans and, especially, Insects are huge subgroups Found in nearly all Earth habitats (Crustaceans especially in saltwater and freshwater habitats, Insects in terrestrial and freshwater habitats) •Body covered by an external skeleton (exoskeleton) composed of the polysaccharide chitin (same as fungal cell walls!), infused with calcium Insects (Hexapoda): A subgroup of Arthropoda that contains over half of all described animal species! Most orders of insects go through successive nymph stages that more or less look like smaller versions of the adult (sometimes without wings in winged species) However, the four most diverse orders of insects (beetles, moths & butterflies, flies, ants & wasps) go through a distinct complete metamorphosis from juvenile to adult stages. Early stages are for feeding (caterpillars, grubs, maggots), pupal stage is a protective outer skin while the insect undergoes drastic morphological changes, adult stage is primarily for reproduction- no further growth. Any feeding by adult stages, if they feed at all, is strictly for maintaining energy for reproductive activities
Insects: the bad
•Vectors for disease; Malaria, Yellow Fever, Dengue, West Nile (mosquitoes), Chagas (kissing bugs), African Sleeping Sickness (Tsetse Fly), etc. •Biting/stinging; mosquitoes, deer flies, black flies (gnats, noseeums), stinging wasps, fire ants, bedbugs, etc. •Economic/agricultural damage; too many to name, but famous examples in GA include Pine Bark Beetles, Termites, Boll Weevil, Corn Borers, Japanese Beetles, Aphids, Cockroaches, etc.
insects: the good
•Pollinators, honey, beeswax, silk, forensics, invasive species control, research (Fruit Flies used for genetics/chromosome research), aesthetics (butterflies, fireflies), food for many animals. Insects are abundant and are half of all animal species. They are integral parts of most terrestrial food chains and ecosystems, and broad scale pesticide use can easily cause ecological collapse in natural systems. Deuterostomes- anus forms first in development, gut grows through to the mouth end; ancestrally probably looked like worms (acorn worms, sea cucumbers, and basal chordates lack appendages and complex cephalization):
Phylum echinodermata
Slow-moving marine animals: includes sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers Molecular & embryological data support a shared common ancestor for Echinoderms & Chordates- Sea Urchin sperm/eggs used in studies of fertilization and early embryonic development Radial-like anatomy evolved secondarily from the bilateral symmetry of ancestors (not actually radially symmetric) •Spiny skin covers a skeleton of hard calcium carbonate plates
Phylum Chordata
•All chordates share a set of 4 derived characters: Notochord, Dorsal hollow nerve cord, Muscular post-anal tail, Pharyngeal gill slits •Some of these traits are only apparent during embryonic development in many chordates (humans lose gill slits early in embryonic development, notochord becomes cartillage disks between vertebrae, muscular tail stops growing early on as the rest of the embryo develops)
Simple Chordata
Lancelets retain the characteristics of the ancestral chordate body plan as adults; no head, brain, backbone, etc. Sea Squirts (Tunicates) start out as a 'tadpole' larva with all 4 chordate characteristics, develop into permanently anchored filter feeders like sponges; notochord, tail, and dorsal nerve chord lost at maturity.
• subphylum of Chordata •~ 64,000 extant species •Name derived from vertebrae, the series of dorsal bony segments •Possess a Cranium (skull) and "Backbone" (made of cartilage, not bone, in many) "Fish" are not monophyletic unless land vertebrates are considered land fish; i.e. Fish refers to almost any cold-blooded aquatic vertebrate lineage, but some lineages of aquatic fish are more closely related to land vertebrates than they are to other aquatic fish lineages.
The Earliest Vertebrates
1) First branch of vertebrates= Jawless Fish: lineage with no jaws, no paired fins 2) Hagfish have a head (cranium) but no vertebrae (probably a secondary loss to help them knot up to escape predators) in combination with being SLIMY 3) Lampreys have cartilaginous segments surrounding notochord and arching partly over the nerve cord (simple vertebrae!) 4) Lampreys and hagfish both also have much simpler eyes than other vertebrates, with hagfish eyes reduced to almost nothing 5) Cartilaginous Fish (Sharks, Rays, etc.) lack fully hardened bones, but share the following characteristics with bony vertebrates: •Mineralized internal skeleton of calcium-infused cartilage •Jaws •Two sets of paired appendages (Pectoral fins and pelvic fins in locations homologous to our arms and legs)
Bony Fish (Osteichthyes)
Most living vertebrates (including humans and other land vertebrates) belong to a clade of jawed vertebrates called Osteichthyes (means bony fish) •Some Bony "Fish" are not fish as we normally think of them! (land vertebrates!) •There are two living groups of bony vertebrates: Ray-finned Fish & Lobe-fins
Ray Finned Fish
•Includes nearly all the familiar aquatic fish, ~half of all vertebrates •Fins are supported mainly by long, flexible rays, not bone or muscle •Possess Swim Bladders (Gas Bladders) homologous to lungs- mostly control buoyancy, but many fish can absorb some oxygen through them •Most diverse group of vertebrates; lots of saltwater species, but much of the diversity lies in geographically-separated freshwater drainages (lots of allopatric speciation). SE US is particularly diverse, with the Etowah River in NW GA containing many more species than the two largest rivers in the western US, the Columbia and Colorado rivers, combined. •Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a model organism often used in research; small genome (one of the first vertebrate genomes to be sequenced) and a very short generation time make it useful for experiments.
•Have muscular pectoral and pelvic fins surrounding rod-shaped bones •Includes Coelacanths, Lungfishes, and Tetrapods •Coelacanths are well-represented in the fossil record from millions of years ago but were a shocking discovery when living representatives were found at the bottom of the ocean. Swim bladders are filled with oil to keep them from floating far from the ocean floor. •Lungfish are the closest relatives to land vertebrates (Tetrapods) and depend entirely on lungs, not gills for breathing!
Tetrapods are terrestrial Lobe-fins (closest living relatives are lungfish) Four limbs and hands/feet with digits (fingers and toes) Ears for detecting airborne sounds -Plants, fungi, and invertebrate ecosystems had been evolving and were already well established on land for ~150 million years when tetrapods crashed the party ~365 million years ago
•~ 4,800 species of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians (legless amphibians that look like worms or snakes: convergent evolution) •Remain closely tied to water, especially for reproduction- aquatic eggs unprotected from desiccation, aquatic (usually) juvenile stages with gills and (usually) terrestrial adults •Delayed development of arms/legs in tadpoles is a derived characteristic of amphibians, not ancestral to tetrapods •Most breathe through skin and lungs at maturity (using throat muscles to pull and push air in and out of lungs), although many salamanders breathe entirely through their skin or, in some aquatic species, retain juvenile gills
•Amniotes are tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg - the amniotic egg - which contains specialized membranes that protect the embryo from drying out but allow for gas exchange -Two extant clades: Reptiles & Mammals -Produce projections of Keratin (protein in scales, feathers, hair, fingernails, etc.) from skin follicles and breath via rib cage ventilation (use muscles to expand and contract rib cage area for more efficient air movement in and out of lungs)
Includes three extant clades: turtles, lepidosaurs (tuataras, lizards, snakes), & archosaurs (crocodilians & dinosaurs- including birds) Possess scales (or feathers) that create a waterproof barrier Lay shelled eggs on land
•Boxlike shell: Upper and lower shields made of fused vertebrae and ribs, covered with modified scales •Some live in deserts, others have returned to the sea (still must lay eggs on land) •No teeth
Lepidosaurs (Tuataras, Lizards, and Snakes)
•Lizards: most numerous and diverse reptiles, apart from birds; a couple venomous species; some have independently lost their legs- convergent evolution with snakes; 2 venomous species (also convergence with multiple snake lineages) •Snakes: legless lepidosaurs that evolved from a lizard-like ancestor (lizards are paraphyletic unless you include snakes as a lizard lineage); multiple evolutionary origins of highly venomous species •Tuataras: old, unique lizard-like lineage now isolated to a few Pacific Islands
Archosaurs are represented by members of two extant clades: Crocodilians & Dinosaurs
(part of archosaurs group) retain many of the primitive archosaur characters (body like a lizard) -Low diversity today: remaining crocodilians are all semi-aquatic predators: Alligators, Crocodiles, Caimans, Gharial, and False Gharial
Dinosaurs (birds)
(part of archosaur group) Birds are the only extant lineage of dinosaurs and belong to the Therapod clade (with Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor; all have three toes forward, one toe backward) Many Therapods (including Velociraptor and, maybe, Tyrannosaurus) had feathers for insulation; probably warm-blooded like birds, and having keratin scales be light and fluffy probably helped facilitate the evolution of flight in birds
•~ 5,400 species •Mammary glands produce milk for feeding young (derived from sweat/oil glands) •Hair for insulation •Differentiated teeth •Warm-blooded •Multiple lineages have gone back to the ocean (Whales/dolphins, manatees, seals, etc.), one origin of true flight (bats)
3 major mammal lineages
•Monotremes retain the primitive egg-laying condition: echidnas and platypus- only in Australia. Also, no nipples! •Marsupials have the embryo born early; finishes development within a maternal pouch called a marsupium while feeding on milk. •Placental Mammals complete their embryonic development within a uterus, joined to the mother by the placenta; prolonged, protected development seems to have been a successful strategy (>5000 species out of 5400 total mammals). • Things called "shrews" (=small, mouse-like insectivorous mammals with a pointy snout) exist in all of the lineages except Monotremes and Xenarthra Ancestral mammal was probably shrew-like based on the fossil record. 'Shrews' are mousey, with a long pointy snout for eating insects. All other mammal body forms, from whales to humans, have evolved from a shrew-like body plan. Marsupials share a common ancestor with Placental Mammals that didn't lay eggs (eggs hatch internally). Includes opossums, kangaroos, koalas, wombats, marsupial moles, sugar gliders, Tasmanian Devil, Tasmanian Wolf, etc. Extremely diverse in Australia, where the only Placental Mammals that didn't arrive via human assistance are bats and seals. In Australia, Marsupials fill all the mammal ecological roles that are filled by Placental Mammals on other continents. This has led to lots of convergent evolution between Placental Mammals and Marsupials A few marsupials persist on other continents, including some possum diversity in S. America with 1 species extending to U.S. and Canada (Virginia Opossum)
Eutherian (placental mammal lineages)
•Bats, carnivores, hooved mammals, shrews (smallest mammal) and whales (largest animals) all found in one clade •Life habits known as 'Moles' and 'Shrews' are in multiple placental lineages as well as marsupials •Primates (incl. humans) are related to rabbits, rodents; lab rats and lab mice are popular as experimental animals because they are the closest living relatives of humans that are small, reproduce quickly (10 week generation time), and most people think of them as pests so they don't mind killing them as much.
•Most of the basal primates (Bush Babies, Lorises, Tarsiers) are nocturnal, tree-dwelling, insect-eaters; this indicates that the ancestor of all primates shared these characteristics and likely evolved the better binocular vision and gripping hands/thumbs shared by all modern primates due to selection for this lifestyle •Primates are originally an Old World group (Africa, southern Europe, and Asia), but one lineage did colonize the New World from Africa before humans (New World Monkeys) •Old World Monkeys are more closely related to apes (including humans) than they are to the monkeys of Central and South America •Apes (Gibbons, Orangutans, Gorillas, Chimpanzees & Bonobos, and Humans) have vestigial tail that stops growing early in development. •Gibbons are fast tree-swingers and live in Asia, Orangutans also live in trees in Asia but are larger, slower, and more closely related to African Apes (Orangutans + African Apes= Great Apes) •Gorillas + Chimpanzees & Bonobos + Humans= African Apes •Chimpanzees & Bonobos are derived from a common ancestral population with humans ~7+ million years ago and are our closest living nonhuman relatives Hominid Evolution (fossil human-like apes more closely related to us than chimps) Primary features that separate humans from other African apes: We walk upright on two legs= Bipedal•Increased relative skull/ brain size, particularly frontal lobe -Bipedalism evolved before increased relative brain size -Homo sapiens indistinguishable from modern human skeletons first appear in the fossil record ~200,000 years ago -Neanderthals- now considered by many to be a subspecies of Homo sapiens- occasionally interbred with anatomically modern humans until ~20,000 years ago and constitute 1-2% of the genome of anyone whose genetic history isn't limited to sub-Saharan Africa)
Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize
Certain nutrients are considered "essential" in the diets of some animals because
they are required for animal diets, but these animals are not able to synthesize the nutrients.
There are three major groups of mammals, categorized on the basis of their __________.
method of reproduction
Select the correct statement(s) about the origin of fungi.
Multicellularity probably arose independently in fungi and animals.
What is a primary, common evolutionary feature of all reptiles, mammals, and birds?
amniotic egg
Which of the following clades contains the greatest number of animal species?
the bilaterians
The most ancient branch point in animal phylogeny is that between having
true tissues and no tissues.
Which clade does NOT include humans?
Which of the following is unique to animals?
nervous conduction and muscular movement
Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?
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What nutritional mode is this plant?
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What nutritional mode is this plant? (mistletoe)
Chemoheterotrophic Photoautotrophic
(True or False) Plants are easier to genetically modify than animals because reproductive tissues or entire plants can often be grown from a single transformed meristem cell.
Which group of fungi can actively grow inside plant root cell walls to exchange nutrients?
The mushrooms you buy in a grocery store are what type of tissue?
How many haploid spores eventually form from a zygote in Ascomycota species?
Which lineage is most closely related to animals?
What do fungi and mycorrhizal interactions have in common?
Both involve a photosynthetic organism donating carbon compounds to a fungus in exchange for inorganic nutrients
(True or False) Fungi directly have killed more humans through disease and poisoning than they have saved by other means.
What is the name of the "hollow ball of cells" developmental stage shared by all animals
Match the term or organism to the phylum with which it is best associated
Porifera - Spicules Cnidaria - Zooxanthellae Platyhelmenthes - Tapeworm Mollusca - Cephalopods Annelida - Chemoautotrophic symbionts
Out of the list below, which phylum is most closely related to you?
Which feature evolved on the same branch of the phylogenetic tree as bilateral symmetry?
What do coral reefs and lichens have in common?
Both involve a photosynthetic organism donating carbon skeletons to a chemoheterotrophic organism in exchange for inorganic nutrients
Which phylum below is most closely related to you?
What was the first animal to have its complete genome sequenced?
Nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans)
Which of the following is NOT an arthropod?
Which of the following is NOT one of the ancestral defining features found across chordates?
Put the following characteristics in the order they evolved in your ancestors (Most recent
Amniotic egg < Swim Bladder/Lungs < Jaws < Notochord < Mesoderm
Which of the following is not a Lepidosaur?
66 Which of the following is NOT an amniote?
What is the most diverse group of vertebrates? (highest # of extant species)
Ray-finned Fish
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Match the letters to the organism that belongs in that place on the phylogenetic tree
A - Owl B - Salamander C - Goldfish D - Butterfly E - Jellyfish
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Which of these characteristics evolved at node C?
Swim Bladder/Lungs
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At which node did paired appendages homologous to arms and legs evolve?
What kind of cells are the hyphae of the fungi made up of?
What is the zygote of the hyphae of a fungi?
It is a diploid zygote
What are the four categories of tissue
Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
epithelia tissue:
cover the outside of body and line organs and cavities within, closely packed sheets of cells
Connective tissues
sparsely packed cells scattered in an extracellular matrix (a web of protein fibers embedded in a liquid, gel, or solid).
What does the Connective tissues include
Cartilage, bone, fat, and blood
muscle fibers
long cells, capable of contracting in response to nerve signals
What are the three types of muscle fibers in vertebrates?
skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
Nerve tissue
enables rapid cell-to-cell communication over long distances
secreted by endocrine glands) coordinate slower but longer-acting responses to stimuli than nerves and play a huge role in homeostatic function
chemical signal secreted into the circulatory system that communicates regulatory messages
Hormones can have multiple effects
-Target cells may differ in their response to the hormone –Same receptors on very different types of cells, cell responses differ –Different receptors on same types of cells can cause vastly different responses
Nitrogenous Wastes
Nitrogenous breakdown products of proteins and nucleic acids must be removed from the body
What are the three types of Nitrogenous Wastes
Ammonia, Urea, Uric Acid
Uric Acid
largely insoluble in water, can be secreted as a paste with very little water loss; reptiles (including birds), insects, land mollusks
produced in liver of some animals from ammonia, much less toxic; carried to kidneys where concentrated and excreted with minimal loss of water; some aquatic animals (sharks), amphibians, mammals
toxic, even at low concentrations; requires access to lots of water; common in aquatic animals (most fish ‘pee’ constantly)
What is the nutrition mode of all animals?
chemoheterotrophs: -Fuel for cellular work –Organic raw materials for biosynthesis (carbon skeletons) –Essential nutrients, substances the animal cannot assemble for itself, even with raw materials (essential amino acids, vitamins, & minerals)
Open Circulatory Systems
invertebrates- insects & other arthropods, most molluscs
Closed Circulatory Systems
annelids, squids & octopuses (cephalopod molluscs), and vertebrates
What are the 3 types of blood vessels?
Arteries, Veins, Capillaries
Very thin walled, facilitate exchange with the interstitial fluid- very branched, blood flow is very slow, pressure is low
thinner-walled, blood flows back to the heart with help from muscle action, one-way valves
thicker walls accommodate high pressure of blood pumped from heart
Why are gills efficient:
gills are more efficient, due to the increased effectiveness of gas exchange that is increased by ventilation (movement of water across gills) and countercurrent flow of blood and water (Fig. 34.18); blood passes the most oxygenated water last before continuing to the body to maximize efficiency and bring the blood as close as possible to the oxygenation level of the water.