BIO 121 Chapters 9, 12, 13 Exam

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Metabolic pathways
- harvest energy from high-energy molecules such as glucose - cellular respiration is critical and often interacts with other pathways - comprises thousands of different chemical reactions that may be organized and regulated
Cellular respiration
- occurs through a long series of carefully controlled redox reactions (conserves energy/prevents mini explosions) that use the electrons of high-energy molecules to make ATP - oxygen atoms are reduced to form water - glucose + 6 oxygen gas + ADP + inorganic Phosphate —> 6 carbon dioxide + 6 water + ATP - consists of 4 processes: glycolysis, pyruvate processing, Krebs cycle, and electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation
Glycolysis overview
- a series of 10 reactions that occurs in the cytosol of eukaryotes and prokaryotes - net yield of 2 NADH, 2 ATP, 2 H2O, and 2 pyruvate for every glucose - glucose + 2 ATP —> 2 (NADH + H+) + 4 ATP + 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O
Phosphofructokinase (PFK)
- uses ATP to phosphorylate the end of fructose-6-phosphate to form fructose-1,6-bisphosphate - increases potential energy
Pyruvate processing
- occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria or the cytosol of prokaryotes - for eukaryotes, pyruvate is transported from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix - catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase, an enormous enzyme complex which is regulated by a negative feedback loop involving ATP - 2 pyruvate + 2 NAD+ + 2 Coenzyme A —> 2 acetyl CoA + 2 CO2 + 2 NADH - Decarboxylation: the carboxyl group on pyruvate (the 3rd carbon) is released as CO2
- enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to another molecule
- enzyme that removes phosphate group
Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)
- also occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria or the cytosol of prokaryotes - 2 turns of the citric acid cycle for each glucose molecule - Potential energy is released to reduce coenzymes - The acetyl group (2C) from acetyl CoA is transferred to oxaloacetate (4C) to form citrate (6C); oxaloacetate is regenerated at the end (cycle) - 8 reactions - 2 acetyl coA —> 6 NADH + 6H+ + 2 FADH2 + 2 ATP + 4CO2
Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation
- electron transport chain consisting of 4 main protein complexes establishes a proton gradient that is used to produce ATP - uses NADH and FADH2 produced in previous steps to generate the protein gradient, which contributes to the phosphorylation of ADP - uses O2 (oxygen gas) and produces ATP and water - occurs across the inner membrane of the mitochondria or the plasma membrane + the periplasm of prokaryotes - a small amount of energy is released in each reaction; each successive bond/molecule in the ETC holds less potential energy ; after the ETC, most of the chemical energy from glucose is accounted for by a proton electrochemical gradient - primary goal: make ATP - secondary goal: regenerate NAD+
- space between the cell wall and the plasma membrane
2 fundamental requirements of cellular life
- energy to generate ATP - a source of carbon to use as raw materials for synthesizing macromolecules
Catabolic pathways
- involve the breakdown of molecules - often harvest stored chemical energy to produce ATP
Anabolic pathways
- result in the synthesis of larger molecules from smaller components - often use energy in the form of ATP
- maintenance of a stable internal environment under different environmental conditions
Energy investment phase (glycolysis)
- reactions 1 through 5 - uses 2 ATP molecules - regulation of the metabolic pathway occurs during this phase (reaction 3, regulation of phosphofructokinase)
Energy payoff phase (glycolysis)
- reactions 6 through 10 - NADH is made and ATP is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation
Substrate-level phosphorylation
- 1 way to make ATP - the ONLY way to produce ATP through glycolysis - enzyme facilitates the transfer of a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP
Glycolysis regulation
- regulated by feedback inhibition - high levels of ATP inhibit the third enzyme/step of glycolysis (phosphofructokinase), which have two binding sites for ATP - when ATP binds to the regulatory site of phosphofructokinase, the reaction rate slows dramatically
Regulation of pyruvate processing
- when products of glycolysis and pyruvate processing are abundant, pyruvate dehydrogenase is phosphorylated, inducing a conformational change in the enzyme and inhibiting its activity
Citric acid cycle regulation
- can be turned off at multiple points via several different mechanisms of feedback inhibitions - regulated at steps 1, 3, and 4 by ATP and NADH - reaction rates are high when ATP and NADH are scarce; rates are low when ATP or NAHD are abundant
Oxidation of NADH and FADH2
- oxidized by membrane complexes - NADH is oxidized when combined with the inner membrane of the mitochondria; in prokaryotes, it is oxidized by the plasma membrane - molecules in the inner mitochondrial membrane can cycle between oxidized and reduced states
ETC Protein complexes
- most are composed of easily-oxidized proteins - some accept only electrons, while others accept electrons plus protons; each complex has differing redox potentials
Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q, or simply Q)
- lipid-soluble, non-protein - critical component of the ETC - reduced by complexes I and II; moves throughout the hydrophobic interior of the electron transport chain membrane, where it is oxidized by complex III
Redox potential
- ability to accept electrons - High positive value = more potential to GAIN electrons - strong negative value = more potential to LOSE electrons
Complex I (ETC)
- NADH dehydrogenase oxidizes NADH - transfers 2 electrons through proteins containing FMN prosthetic groups and Fe-S cofactors to reduce an oxidized form of Q - 4 protons pumped out of the matrix to the intermembrane space per pair of electrons
Complex II (ETC)
- Succinate dehydrogenase oxidizes FADH2 - transfers the two electrons through proteins containing Fe-S cofactors to reduce an oxidized form of Q - this complex is also used in step 6 of the Krebs cycle - does not produce sufficient energy to pump protons
Complex III
- cytochrome c reductase oxidizes Q - transfers 1 electron at a time through proteins containing heme prosthetic groups and Fe-S cofactors to reduce an oxidized form of cytochrome c - 4 protons for each pair of electrons is transported from the matrix to the intermembrane space
Cyt c (cyctochrome c)
- reduced by accepting a single electron from complex III - moves along the surface of the ETC membrane, where it is oxidized by complex IV
Complex IV
- cytochrome c oxidase oxidizes cyt c - transfers each electron through proteins containing heme prosthetic groups to reduce oxygen gas, which picks up two protons from the matrix to produce water - 2 additional protons are pumped out of the matrix of the intermembrane space
ATP Synthesis (ETC)
- fueled by chemiosmosis; uses the established proton gradient to create ATP using ATP synthase
ATP synthase
- located in the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes, or the plasma membrane in prokaryotes - creates energy from the proton motive force of the proton gradient to chemical bond energy in ATP - is a rotary machine that makes ATP as it spins - consists of 2 components—an ATPase "knob"/F1 unit, and a membrane-bound, proton-transporting base/F0 unit, which is a rotor that turns as protons flow through it—that are connected by a shaft and held in place by a stator - the spinning F0 unit changes the conformation of the F1 unit so that it phosphorylates ADP to form ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation
- oxidative = FADH2 and NADH are being oxidized - phosphorylation = ADP —> ATP - different from substrate-level phosphorylation because instead of potential energy activating the enzyme, kinetic energy activates the enzyme (movement of protons down their gradient) - yields ~24-28 ATP per glucose
Chemiosmotic hypothesis
- the linkage between electron transport and ATP production by ATP synthase is indirect - the synthesis of ATP only requires a proton gradient
Aerobic respiration
- O2, which has a very high redox potential, is the final electron acceptor - most efficient—CO2 (single-carbon compound) is the byproduct
Anaerobic respiration
- some other compound is the final electron acceptor - has a lower energy yield compared to aerobic respiration because oxygen is super electronegative and has a high redox potential - less efficient—some other carbon-containing (organic) molecule is the byproduct (ethanol, lactic acid, etc) - seen in some prokaryotes
- a metabolic pathway that regenerates NAD+ from NADH - the electron in NADH is transferred to pyruvate - serves as an emergency backup for aerobic respiration when there is not enough oxygen - incomplete oxidation of glucose; much less efficient than cellular respiration - produces 2 ATP per glucose, compared with about 29 ATP per glucose in cellular respiration
Lactic acid fermentation
- fermentation in which the product is lactic acid - occurs in humans in the absence of oxygen - muscle cramps = the accumulation of lactic acid - in humans, lactic acid fermentation results in the production of yogurt, cheese, etc - produces only 2 ATP (by substrate-level phosphorylation)
Ethanol fermentation
- some yeast cells can perform alcohol fermentation - pyruvate is converted to acetaldehyde and CO2 - acetaldehyde accepts electrons from NADH - ethanol and NAD+ are produced
Faculative anaerobes
- organisms that can switch between fermentation and aerobic respiration - only use fermentation if an electron acceptor is not available - E.coli, yeast, etc
Glycolysis step 1
- hexokinase uses ATP to phosphorylate glucose, increasing its potential energy - forms glucose-6-phosphate and ADP
Glycolysis Step 2
- phosphoglucose isomerase converts glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate (an isomer)
Glycolysis Step 3
- Phosphofructokinase uses ATP to phosphorylate the opposite end of fructose-6-phosphate, increasing its potential energy - forms fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
Glycolysis Step 4
- fructose-bis-phosphate aldolase cleaves fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into 2 different 3-carbon sugars (DAP and G3P)
Glycolysis Step 5
- triose phosphate isomerase converts dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DAP) to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) - reaction is fully reversible, but DAP-to-G3P reaction is favored because G3P can be immediately used as a substrate for step 6
Glycolysis Step 6
- glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) dehydrogenase catalyzes a 2-step reaction - first oxidizes G3P using the NAD+ coenzyme to produce NADH - Energy from this reaction is used to attach an inorganic phosphate to the oxidized product to form 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
Glycolysis Step 7
- phosphoglycerate kinase transfers a phosphate from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to ADP to make 3-phosphoglycerate and ATP (PRODUCES ATP—1 for each 3-carbon intermediate)
Glycolysis Step 8
- phosphoglycerate mutase rearranges the phosphate in 3-phosphoglycerate to form 2-phosphoglycerate
Glycolysis Step 9
- enolase removes a water molecule from 2-phosphoglycerate to form a C=C double bond and produce phosphoenolpyruvate
Glycolysis Step 10
- remaining phosphate groups are added to 2 ADP molecules to form 2 ATP and pyruvate - pyruvate kinase transfers a phosphate fro phosphoenolpyruvate to ADP to make pyruvate and ATP
Electron Transport Chain Theoretical Yield
- 1 NADH = 3 ATP - 1 FADH2 = 2 ATP (lower because complex II, where FADH2 is oxidized, has a lower redox potential than complex I, where NADH is oxidized)
ETC Actual Yield
- 1 NADH = ~2.25 ATP - 1 FADH2 = ~1.25 ATP
- reduction division - the number of chromosomes in the daughter cell(s) are halved —> 4 daughter cells - integral to sexual reproduction; creates genetic variation and diversity - Interphase (G1, S, G2), Meiosis I, and Meiosis II
- production of gametes - uses meiosis in animals - spermatogenesis = creation of sperm - oogenesis = creation of eggs
- characteristics that are inherited - specified by genes
- specific segments of DNA at a specific location (locus) on chromosomes - code for proteins or RNA that produce an organism's inherited traits - may occur in several varieties (alleles) that may code for different variants of the same trait
- identifies the number and types of chromosomes present in a species - Karyotyping: technique to view chromosomes
Homologous chromosomes (homologs)
- chromosomes of the same type (size and shape) - not identical
Homologous pairs
- a pair of homologs - contain the same genes in the same position along the chromosome (but not identical!!)
- each species has a haploid number (n), which indicates the number of DISTINCT TYPES of chromosomes present (sex chromosomes count as a single type) - indicates the number of complete chromosome sets it contains - in humans, n = 23
- organisms or cells that have a paternal and maternal chromosome - 2n; contains 2 homologs of each chromosome, and 2 alleles of each gene
- organisms or cells containing only one of each type of chromosome, with just one allele of each gene
- organisms or cells containing 3 or more versions of each type of chromosome
Sex chromosomes
- determine the sex of the individual - in many animals, X and Y are the sex chromosomes; there are sex-determining regions within these chromosomes - also contain homologous regions that do not determine sex
- non-sex chromosomes
S phase (meiosis)
- DNA in each chromosome in the diploid (2n) parent cell is replicated - when replication is complete, each chromosome has two identical sister chromatids, which remain attached along most of their life (still considered a single chromosome)
Meiosis I
- homologs separate so that one homolog goes to one daughter cell and the other homolog goes to the other daughter cell - each daughter cell has one set of chromosomes; 1 cell (2n) —> 2 cells (n) - sister chromatids stay together, while non-sister chromatids separate
Meiosis II
- sister chromatids separate - reduction division; 2 cells (n) —> 4 cells (n), each with a single chromosome of the homologous pair - equivalent to mitosis in a haploid cell
Spindle apparatus
- made up of microtubules - coordinate chromosome movement
Meiosis in animal life cycles
- meiosis reduces chromosome number in half—in animals, these products of meiosis are gametes (sperm or eggs) - gametes fuse by fertilization, which restores diploidy; resulting diploid cell is called a zygote and represents the start of a new organism
Early prophase I
- nuclear envelope begins to break down - chromosomes condense—as they condense, sister chromatids stay joined along their entire length by cohesins - spindle apparatus begins to form - nucleolus disappears - synapsis occurs
- the pairing process in which homologous pairs come together - held together by proteins called the synaptonemal complex
- structure that results from synapsis - consists of two homologs
- structure containing 4 sister and nonsister chromatids
Late prophase I
- nuclear envelope breaks down - centromeres of homologs become attached to microtubules from opposite poles of the spindle apparatus - chiasma formation and homologous recombination (crossing over) occur - synaptonemal complex eventually disassembles in late prophase I, leaving homologs held together only at chiasmata
Chiasma formation
- synaptonemal complex dissociates except for at certain points called chiasmata, where DNA exchange (crossing over) between homologous non-sister chromatids occurs
Homologous recombination (crossing over)
- KEY event in meiosis; carefully regulated - breaks are made in the DNA and reattached - occurs between homologous segments of non-sister chromatids - spindle fibers partially separate chromosomes during crossing over - produces chromosomes with a combination of maternal and paternal alleles
Metaphase I
- tetrads line up at the metaphase plate - alignment of the homologs is random and independent of the alignment of other homologs (independent assortment)
Anaphase I
- paired homologs separate and migrate to the opposite ends of the cell - sister chromatids of each chromosome remain together - non-sister chromatids separate
Telophase I (interkinesis)
- homologs finish moving to opposite sides of the spindle - spindle fibers partially disassemble - other steps are not the same for all organisms—chromosomes may decondense, nucleolus/nuclear envelope may reappear
Prophase II
- spindle apparatus forms - one spindle fiber attaches to the centromere of each sister chromatid and moves the pairs of sister chromatids back and forth
Metaphase II
- replicated chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate
Anaphase II
- sister chromatids separate - resulting daughter chromosomes begin moving to opposite sides of the cell
Telophase II
- chromosomes arrive at opposite sides of the cell - a nuclear envelope forms around each haploid set of chromosomes - chromosomes decondense - nucleolus reappears - spindle completely disappears
Similarities between mitosis and meiosis
- Begins after a cell has passed through the G1, S, and G2 phases of the cell cycle - cell division
Differences between mitosis and meiosis
- homologous pairs form a tetrad - at metaphase plate, there are tetrads instead of individual replicated chromosomes (sister chromatids) - crossing over occurs in meiosis - meiosis is a reduction division - produces genetically distinct haploid daughter cells rather than genetically identical diploid daughter cells
- original source of genetic variation - produce different versions of genes—can be positive or negative
Genetic diversity
- variation in gene pool of a species - produced by mutations and meiosis/sexual reproduction - sources include crossing over (creating new combinations of alleles that did not exist in the parents) and independent assortment (creating more possible combinations of genetic material)
Fertilization (genetic diversity)
- each gamete is genetically unique - even in self-fertilization where gametes from the same individual combine, the offspring will be genetically different from the parent - outcrossing: where gametes from two individuals combine, increasing the genetic diversity of the offspring even further
- occurs when both homologs or both sister chromatids move to the same pole in the parent cell, leading to abnormal products of meiosis - results in gametes that contain an extra chromosome (n+1) or lack one chromosome (n-1)
- result of fertilization of a n + 1 gamete
- result of fertilization of an n-1 gamete
- cells with too many or too few chromosomes
- disjunction of the chromatids did not occur properly; may have different outcomes depending on where the nondisjunction occurred (Meiosis I vs Meiosis II) - nondisjunction in meiosis I affects all gametes, while nondisjunction in meiosis II affects only 2
Oogenesis in humans
- primary oocytes enter meiosis I during female embryonic development and arrest in prophase I until sexual maturity is reached - meiosis is not completed until ovulation, years later
Purifying selection
- natural selection against deleterious alleles; favors sexual reproduction - over time, purifying selection should steadily reduce the numerical advantage of asexual reproduction—in asexual reproduction, a damage gene will be inherited by all of that individual's offspring, while in sexual reproduction, offspring will likely lack deleterious alleles present in the parent
The changing-environment hypothesis
- if a new strain of disease-causing agent evolves all of the asexually produced offspring are likely to be susceptible to that new strain, but if the offspring are genetically varied, then it is likely that some offspring will have combinations of alleles that enable them to fight off the new disease and eventually produce offspring of their own - supported by studies involving roundworms and tracking the rate of outcrossing between populations that were introduced to a pathogen and populations that were not - therefore, sexual reproduction may be an adaptation that increases the fitness of individuals in certain environments
Binary Fission
- Asexual cell division for unicellular organisms - Purpose: reproduction; division of one cell reproduces the entire organism - Occurs in bacteria, archaea, and protists - bacterial chromosome replication —> segregation (proteins bind to chromosomes and separate them) —> other proteins (tubulin homologs) divide the cytoplasm —> PG (peptidoglycan?) is synthesized
- a type of cell division where the daughter cells are identical to the parent cell (clones—same genetic content) - purpose: reproduction, growth and development, and tissue renewal within multicellular organisms; essential for the development of the zygote into the adult organism - number of chromosomes is conserved in division
Haploid cells
- contain one copy of each chromosome
Diploid cells
- contain two copies of each chromosome
- a type of cell division where the daughter cells have half as much genetic material as a parent cell - not genetically identical to parents—recombinated DNA; used in gametes of diploid organisms - 2n —> n (chromosome number is halved)
Cellular replication (basic)
- copy the DNA - separate the copies - divide the cytoplasm to create two complete cells - main purpose is to transmit the mother cell's genetic information (usually DNA) to the daughter cells
- carrier of genes - a single, long double-helix of DNA wrapped around proteins called histones - two attached sister chromatids are still considered a single chromosome - unreplicated: consists of a single, long DNA double helix wrapped around proteins - replicated: consists of two copies of the same DNA double helix - condensed replicated: consists of DNA condensed around its associated proteins, resulting in a compact chromosome
- a section of a chromosome that codes for a particular protein or nucleic acid, which affect traits
- one double-stranded DNA copy of a replicated chromosome (+ its associated proteins)
Sister chromatids
- chromatids attached at the centromere
- proteins that attach sister chromatids along their entire lengths - once mitosis begins, these connections are removed except for at the centromere
- nondividing phase of the cell cycle - phase in which cells spend most of their time - chromosomes are uncoiled or loosely coiled (chromatin) - cells are growing and preparing for division or are fulfilling their specialized functions
S (synthesis) phase
- stage within interphase in which DNA replication occurs - chromosome replication occurs ONLY during interphase
Gap/Growth phases (G1 and G2)
- G1 comes before S phase and G2 comes after - responsible for protein synthesis and organelle duplication - existence confirmed by pulse-chase experiments
M (mitotic) phase
- chromosomes are condensed into compact structures - division of replicated chromosomes to daughter cells; one copy of each chromatid goes to each daughter cell
- division of the cytoplasm - separates the mother cell into two daughter cells
Cell Cycle (IPPMAT)
- Interphase - mitosis: Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase (+ cytokinesis)
- sister chromatids condense, and the mitotic spindle begins to form - the nuclear envelope begins to dissociate into vesicles - nucleolus is no longer visible
- the nuclear envelope has completely dissociated into vesicles and the mitotic spindle is completely formed - early in prometaphase, kinesin and dynein motors attached to the kinetochores "walk" the chromosomes up/down the microtubules until the chromosomes reach the plus ends, at which point the kinetochore proteins secure their attachment to the spindle
Mitotic spindle (mitotic spindle apparatus)
- ensures that each daughter cell will obtain the correct number and types of chromosomes - responsible for organizing and sorting the chromosomes during mitosis - composed of microtubules
Microtubule organizing centers
- centrosomes (in animals and certain plants and fungi) that duplicate at the beginning of the M phase - each defines a pole - animal cells have centrioles, while other eukaryotes do not
- cylindrical structures consisting of microtubule triplets - located inside animal centrosomes
Astral microtubules
- microtubules that position the spindle in the cell - extend from the MTOCs - interact with proteins on the plasma membrane
Polar microtubules
- microtubules that separate the two poles and push away during anaphase - extend from each spindle pole and overlap with one another
Kinetochore microtubules
- microtubules attached to the kinetochore bound to centromeres - play a central role in anaphase; remain stationary and shorten as subunits are lost from the + ends - proteins from the kinetochore attach to a ring that surrounds the kinetochore microtubule; as the + end disassembles, the ring moves along the microtubule
- sister chromatids align along the metaphase plate - polar microtubules overlap in the middle of the cell, forming a pole-to-pole connection
- cohesins that hold together sister chromotids at the centromeres split - individual chromosomes move toward the poles as kinetochore microtubules shorten - creates two identical sets of daughter chromosomes at each pole - both the shrinking of kinetochore microtubules and the movement of the poles away from each other due to the pushing of the polar microtubules' motor proteins pull the chromosomes apart
- chromosomes decondense and the nuclear envelope reforms
Cytokinesis in plants
- vesicles containing cellulose from the Golgi apparatus bring membrane and cell wall components to the middle of the cell, which fuse to form a cell plate
Cytokinesis in animals (and other eukaryotes)
- a ring of actin and myosin filaments contracts inside the cell membrane, pinching inward to form a cleavage furrow - the ring shrinks and tightens until division is complete
Cell cycle length variation
- variation most commonly occurs in the G1 phase - rapidly dividing cells, such as epithelial skin cells, essentially eliminate the G1 phase while non-dividing cells get permanently stuck in the G1 phase - variation may also vary in response to different conditions, indicating that the cell cycle is regulated
G0 Phase
- resting phase of the cell cycle in which the cell continues to function but does not divide
Mitosis promoting factor (MPF)
- is present in the cytoplasm of M-phase cells and induces mitosis in all eukaryotes - consists of two units: cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) - concentration increases during interphase and peaks in M phase before decreasing again - active when cyclin concentrations are high
- regulatory protein - component of MPF - CYCLES during the cell cycle - high concentration before/during the M phase; during anaphase, degradation proteins activate and decrease concentrations of cyclin
Cyclin-dependent kinase
- catalyzes the phosphorylation of other proteins to start the M phase - regulated by cyclin; active only when bound to the cyclin subunit - 2 phosphorylation sites (1 activation site, 1 inhibition site); activation site but not inhibition site must be phosphorylated for Cdk to be active
MPF regulation
- the enzyme complex that is activated during anaphase attaches proteins to the cyclin subunit, marking it for destruction and leading to the deactivation of MPF
Cell cycle checkpoints
- regulatory molecules at each checkpoint allow a cell to "decide" whether to proceed with division - if these regulatory molecules are defective, the checkpoint may fail
G1 checkpoint
- occurs late in the G1 phase - pass if: - cell size is adequate - nutrients are sufficient - social signals are present - DNA is undamaged (if damaged, p53 activates and either pauses the cell cycle so damage can be repaired, or it triggers apoptosis)
G2 checkpoint
- occurs between G2 and M - pass if: - chromosomes have replicated successfully - DNA is undamaged - activated MPF is present (only possible if first two criteria are met)
M-phase checkpoint 1
- regulates transition from metaphase to anaphase - pass if chromosomes have attached properly to the spindle apparatus (occurs during metaphase)
M-phase checkpoint 2
- regulates transition from anaphase to telophase - pass if chromosomes have properly segregated and MPF is COMPLETELY absent - if chromosomes do not fully separate during anaphase, remaining MPF activity will prevent the cell from entering telophase and undergoing cytokinesis
- a complex family of diseases caused by cells that grow in an uncontrolled fashion, invade nearby tissues, and spread to other sites in the body - 200 types of cancers, all arising from cells in which cell-cycle checkpoints have failed (many are thought to arise from cells with defects in the G1 checkpoint) - arise from 2 types of defects: defects that activate the proteins required for cell growth when they should not be active, and defects that prevent tumor suppressor genes from shutting down the cell cycle
Malignant tumors
- cancerous and invasive tumors - metastasize - can spread throughout the body via the blood or lymph and initiate secondary tumors
Benign tumors
- noncancerous, noninvasive tumors
Social signals
- cells respond to signals from other cells - social control is based on growth factors, which allow cells to pass the G1 checkpoint
Growth factors
- small proteins that stimulate division - found in serum (the liquid portion of blood) - cancer cells divide without growth factors