energy storage (triacyclycerols) (triglycerides), structural (phospholipids)
what are steroids characterized by?
a 4 ring structure
where are steroids found?
cell membrane, where they influence the membranes fluidity
how do steroids act?
they can act as hormones
what are steroids?
a group of lipids (fat)
characteristics of phospholipids
they consist of two hydrophobic tails which are fatty acid chains, and one hydrophilic head; the bilayer is held together by weak hydrophobic interactions between the tails.
this is a cis fatty acid
has both hydrogen atoms located on the same side
this is a trans fatty acid
has the two hydrogen atoms on opposite sides.
what are triglycerides?
a glycerol backbone esterified with three fatty acids
non-polar lipid molecules composed of a glycerol molecule associated with three fatty acid (FA) molecules
what are waxes made of?
an alcohol chain and a fatty acid chain
a glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acid tails (hydrophobic), and a phosphate group (hydrophilic)
amino acid structure
a basic amino group (−NH2), an acidic carboxyl group (−COOH), and an organic R group (or side chain) that is unique to each.
difference between essential and non-essential amino acids
essential amino acids are the ones your body does not produce naturally so you have to get them from somewhere else; on the other hand, non-essential amino acids are the ones you body produces naturally
protein structure levels
primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
what is the primary structure level of proteins?
sequence of a chain of amino acids
what is the secondary structure level of proteins?
hydrogen bonding of the peptide backbone causes the amino acids to fold into a repeating pattern
what is the tertiary structure level of proteins?
three-dimensional folding pattern of a protein due to the side chain reactions.
what is the quaternary structure level of proteins?
digestion of food by catabolizing nutrients into monomeric units
function of transport proteins
carries substances in the blood or lymph throughout the body
function of structural proteins
constructs different structures, like the cytoskeleton
function of hormone proteins
coordinate the activity of different body systems
function of defense proteins
protect the body from forge in pathogens
function of contractile proteins
effect muscle contraction
function of storage proteins
provide nourishment in early development of the embryo and the seeding
what is an enzyme?
proteins that help speed up metabolism, or the chemical reactions in our bodies
6 principles of unified cellular theory
1. all living organisms are made of cells
2. cells are the basic unit of life
3. cels arise from pre-existing cells
4. hereditary information is passed from cells
5. all cells have the basic chemical composition
6. energy flow occurs within cells
steps to create a protein
DNA (in nucleus) transcribed to mRNA.
mRNA leaves nucleus.
mRNA enters cytoplasm.
mRNA hooks up with ribosomes.
Ribosomes scroll through mRNA.
tRNA delivers amino acids to mRNA/ribosome complex.
Enzymes link amino acids together to form a protein.