AP human geo unit 3

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the shared practices, technologies, attitudes, and behaviors
Visible force
seen in a groups actions, possessions, and influence on the landscape Example: In a city in Japan you can see people speaking Japanese, getting to work or other places using public transportation such as subways
Invisible force
guiding people through shared belief system, customs, and traditions Example: In Japan many people follow the religion Shinto
Popular Culture
Fast-paced, changeable, urban-based, media-influenced practices and beliefs(Widespread) Example: Fast food like mc donalds, anime,social media such as tiktok, facebook,and instagram
Traditional Culture
Long-held practices and beliefs, usually resistant to change (includes folk and indigenous cultures, localized) Example:Hanfu a traditional chinese clothes, holiday like burns’ night in scotland
Folk Culture
Beliefs and practices of small, homogenous(alike) groups of people, often living in rural areas are are relatively isolated and slow to change Examples: The maypole tradition, where traditional dancing takes place around a pole on May 1st in villages and small towns
Cultural Relativism
evaluating the culture/culture traits of a group using their own perspective for understanding(statement of facts) Examples:They eat bugs because it has a lot of protein Ethnocentrism: the belief that one’s own culture is the standard and all other cultures should be evaluated against it(can be negative or positive)
the belief that one’s own culture is the standard and all other cultures should be evaluated against it(can be negative or positive) Examples: It is wrong to eat bugs or It is wrong not to eat bugs
the spatial Spreading or dissemination of a cultural element or other phenomena
Relocation Diffusion
The spread of culture as migrants carry their culture/traits with them Examples: The forced relocation of Indian works to East Africa caused by British colonization which spread Hinduism to East Africa
Expansion Diffusion
The spread of culture without the need of migration
Contagious Diffusion
The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person Examples:Traders from North India/Pakistan trading with Nepal and South India which spread Hinduism
Hierarchical Diffusion
The diffusion of an idea or innovation by first passing among the most connected places or people Examples: Emperor Constantine converts and many of his subjects convert with him. *In 313 A.D.
Stimulus Diffusion
A form of diffusion where the principle concept remains, but the specifics of the trait is modified Examples: Chinese porcelain was imported to Europe but because of how expensive it was to import, a different way of producing porcelain was created
Social group one belongs to based on roles filled in society
Social group one belongs to based on cultural background
Social group one belongs to based on perceived physical appearance
Social group one belongs to based on cultural background
One of two maincategories an organism can fit into based on anatomical identifiers
Cultural patterns
Consist of related sets of cultural traits and complexes that create similar behaviors across space
The region from which innovative ideas originate
Centrifugal Forces
Influences that tend to separate or divide groups within an area Example: Differing religion or language
Centripetal Forces:
Influences that tend to unify or draw groups together Example: Sharing religion or language, shared history
Cultural landscape
The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape Example: Domes on mosque would be a reflection of Islam
Sense of place
A strong feeling or perception people have of a place Example: Someone’s home or work
Place making
collaborative process by which we can shape our public realm in order to maximize shared value
Sequent occupance
The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape Examples: Easter Island Heads, Stonehenge, Pyramids Example: Pueblo style homes
Ethnic Enclave
Area with a high concentration of a specific ethnic group distinct from the surrounding area
Occurs when one group of people is dispersed to various locations
Scientists who study languages, have differing theories as to when humans first began communicating through spoken sound
A system of communication, typically through a collection of sounds, that a group of people understands to have the same meaning
A language that is used in education, workplaces, and mass media, and utilized by many Example: Official language(for particular institutional language)
The names of places can provide insights into the physical geography, the history, or the culture of a location or region
Official Language
One designated by law to be the language of government Example:French
Made up largely of ethnically similar people
The language is in vigorous use, with literature in a standardized form being used by some though this is not yet widespread or sustainable
The language is used for face-to-face communication by all generations and the situation is sustainable but lacks a literary tradition
The language is used for face-to-face communication within all generations, but it is losing users
The only remaining users of the language are members of the grandparent generation or older who have little opportunity to use the language
The language is no longer used and no one retains a sense of ethnic identity associated with the language
Language Families
A grouping of languages that share a common,but distant, origin
Local or regional characteristics of a language Example: Aunt vs Aunt or Pop vs Soda vs Coke
A specific region in which particular dialect is spoken
A personal set or institutionalized system of religious attitudes, beliefs, and practices Example: Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism
Universalizing Religions
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those in a particular area Example: include Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Sikhism
Believing in many gods
Believing in one god
The idea that behaviors have consequences in the present life or future life and in dharma(the righteous path)
Caste system
A rigid class structure, that shaped Indian society
Ethnic Religions
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution
Lingua Franca
A “common language” used between two speakers of other languages primarily for trade
A language that results from the mixing of two languages, Originally begin as pidgin languages
Pidgin Language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary from two different languages
A policy of extending a country’s power and influence
An attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory Example:White man's burden, which is the belief is that western Europeans and Americans must educate, enlighten, and develop the undeveloped world
Social constructs
Ideas, concepts, or perceptions that have been created and accepted by people in society or social group and are not created by nature
The clustering of people into cities / An expansion of a city into the surrounding areas developing suburbs Example: New York city with 8.3 million people
Increased interaction between around the world leading to influence on different things such as culture Example: A Starbucks in Japan, a American coffee shop can be found in Japan because of increased interaction of companies globally
Cultural Convergence
The interaction of cultures as they come in contact with each other, ultimately resulting in both cultures influencing and being influenced by the other
Cultural Divergence
The tendency for culture groups to disassociate from others as a result of decreased/restricted interactions Example: The Amish
An ethnic or immigrant group moving to a new area adopts the values and practices of the larger group that has received then, while still maintaining valuable elements of their own culture Example:In the 1800s, the Syndergaard family migrated from Denmark to the United States, settling in a Danish enclave in Iowa. The mother and Father gave most of their ten children common Danish names, such as Inger and Niels. They ate commonly Danish foods such as abelskivver. Within three generations their descendants still ate common Danish food but had names common in U.S. such as Dave, Susan and Jim
An ethnic group can no longer be distinguished from the receiving group Example: the grandchildren of immigrants from India might no longer speak Hindi or eat traditional Indian cuisine daily but they might still practice their Hindu faith
The fusion or blending of two distinctive cultural traits into a unique new hybrid trait Example: Sikhism which has ideas from both Hinduism and Buddhism
The coexistence of several cultures in one society with the ideal of all cultures being valued and worthy of study Example: Corn, tomatoes, and potatoes come from Indigenous American groups
Anti-immigrant, attitude may form among the cultural majority, sometimes brining violence and government actions against the immigrant or minority group Example: From the mid-1800s through the early 1900s many native-born protestants in United states were strongly opposed to Roman Catholic immigrant from Ireland, Italy, Poland, Spanish-speaking countries have often faced opposition from nativist groups
the opposite where an idea or innovation first starts in less connected or influential areas Example:Blues