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Phases of mitosis (abbrev.)
Phases of interphase
G1, S, G2
Cells grow and organelles double
Centrioles and spindle fibers are produced
Chromosomes become visible, nuclear membrane and nucleolus dissolves, spindle apparatus appears
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
Sister chromatids separate
Nuclear membrane reforms, chromosomes condense, and the spindle fibers disappear
Uncontrolled cell division
Loss of the specialized structures and functions of the normal type of cell from which the cancer cells descend
Ability of cancer cells to break through boundaries
The ability of cancer cells to induce extension of nearby blood vessels
Spread of cancer to other tissues
How does angiogenesis relate to a growing tumor?
It allows the tumor to have access to nutrients from the blood vessels that allow it to grow.
Why are angiogenesis inhibitors useful in the treatment of cancer?
They block the growth of blood vessels to cancer cells
List 3 inhibitors
Thalidomide, angiostatin, and endostatin
Why do secondary tumors rapidly grow when the primary tumor is removed?
The main tumor releases stimulants AND inhibitors. The inhibitors block the stimulators from the secondary tumors. When the primary is removed, the source of the inhibitor is removed and the secondaries can grow.
What type of tissue did scientists originally use to look for angiogenesis inhibitors?
How was the mouse experiment set up?
20 mice had a tumor that would spread to the lungs. Half of the mice were given angiostatin and the others weren't.
What were the results from the mouse experiment?
The mice that got the angiostatin had no lung cancer, but the untreated ones had extensive lung cancer.