Topic 5 - IB Design Technology

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Includes glossary terms, as well as a few extras from the notes. Mostly organized by their appearance in the notes.

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The process of discovering a principle which allows for a technical advance in a particular field, often resulting in a novel product
The business of putting an invention in the marketplace and making it a success
Drivers for Invention
Includes: 1) Personal motivation to express creativity / for personal interest 2) Scientific or technical curiosity 3) Constructive discontent 4) Desire to make money 5) Desire to help others
Lone Inventor
An individual working outside or inside an organization who is committed to the invention of a novel product and often becomes isolated because they are engrossed with ideas that imply change and are resisted by others.
Intellectual Property (IP)
A legal term for intangible property such as "creations of the mind" such as inventions and designs that are used in a commercial setting. They are protected by law.
An agreement from a government office to give someone the right to make or sell a new invention for a certain number of years. They are territorial, and typically last for 20 years.
Patent Pending
An indication that an application for a patent has been applied for but has not yet been processed. The marking serves to notify those copying the invention that they may be liable for damages (including back-dated royalties) once a patent is issued.
A symbol, word, or words legally registered or established by use as representing a company or product.
Service Mark
A trademark used to identify a service rather than a product.
Design Protection (Trade Dress)
A simple and cost-effective way to protect an innovative shape, appearance, or ornamentation.
A legal right that grants the creator of an original work exclusive ownership for its use and distribution. Usually for a limited time and within geographical boundaries, they allow the creator to receive compensation for their intellectual effort. It doesn't require registration, and is protected in most countries.
First to Market
The first product of its type to be released on the market or create a new market, product category, or substantial subdivision of a category.
Shelved Technologies
Technology that is invented and developed, but not brought to market due to costs, timing, insufficient technology, or social nonacceptance. They are kept as an asset, and may be sold and licensed in the future.
Sustaining Innovation
A new or improved product that meets the needs of consumers and sustains manufacturers. They are incremental changes. Companies can achieve this via cost reductions, product expansions, or functional improvements/additions. Phones are an example.
Disruptive Innovation
A product or type of technology that challenges existing companies to ignore or embrace technical change. They are drastic changes. Examples include 3D printing, web-based video, and ride-sharing.
Process Innovation
An improvement in the organization and/or method of manufacture that often leads to reduced costs or benefits to consumers. An example is the automobile industry.
Architectural Innovation
The technology of the components stays the same, but the configuration of the components is changed to produce a new design.
Modular Innovation
The basic configuration stays the same, but one or more key components are changed to produce a new design.
Configurational Innovation
A change is made in both technology and organization to produce a new design.
The process by or rate at which the market accepts a new idea or product.
A process by which a new idea or product's adoption into the market is actively slowed or hindered due to disagreements over patent ownership, natural resistance to unfamiliar concepts, or competing companies.
Radical Innovation
A high-risk innovation strategy that introduces a new idea, system, or product that is very different from the existing paradigm.
Act of Insight
A sudden image of a potential solution is formed in the mind, usually after a period of thinking about the problem. Also known as a "eureka moment." An example is Newton watching the apple fall.
A solution to a problem in one field is used to provide a new idea for a design problem in another field. An example is the principle for a hovercraft being used for lawn mowers.
Technology Transfer
Technological advances that form the basis of new designs may be applied to the development of different types of products or systems. An example is laser technology.
An idea from one context is used to stimulate ideas for solving a problem in another context. An example is the Wright Brothers using biomimicry.
An unexpected discovery leads to a new idea. Microwave ovens and velcro are examples.
Technology Push
Scientific research leads to advances in technology that underpin new ideas. May be referred to as "a solution looking for a problem."
Market Pull
A new idea is needed as a result of demand from the marketplace.
Product Champion
An influential individual, usually working within an organization, who develops enthusiasm for a particular idea or invention and "champions" it within that organization.
An influential indivdual who can take an invention to market, often by financing the development, production, and diffusion of a product into the marketplace.
Multi-Disciplinary Approach
On occasion, the inventor is also the product champion and/or entrepreneur. This requires specific skill sets and actions to fulfill these roles. Effective design draws from multiple areas of expertise, and this can be utilised at different stages of product development.
Product Life Cycle
A tool for mapping out the four stages of a product's commercial life: Launch, Growth, Maturity, and Decline.
The 1st stage of the product life cycle, characterized by: 1) Innovators being the only ones aware of the product 2) Slow sales and low profit 3) Little to no competition, meaning a monopoly
The 2nd stage of the product life cycle, characterized by: 1) Early adopters beginning to use the product 2) Sales and profit beginning to grow 3) Company enjoying a monopoly early in the stage 4) Reduced profits later in the stage due to competitors introducing competing products
The 3rd stage of the product life cycle, characterized by: 1) Many competitors competing for customers 2) Product differentiation strategies being employed to attract more customers 3) A crowded and saturated market with many models 4) Few new companies entering the market due to low profit margins
The 4th stage of the product life cycle, characterized by: 1) Sales and profit sharply declining 2) Public abandoning the product 3) Reduced number of models 4) Designers considering ways to revitalize the product
Planned Obsolescence
A product becomes outdated as a conscious act, either to ensure a continuing market or to ensure that safety factors and new technology can be incorporated into later versions of the product. An example is the light bulb.
Technological Obsolescence
When a new technology supersedes an existing technology, the existing technology quickly falls out of use and is no longer incorporated into new products. Consumers instead opt for the newer, more efficient technology in their products. An example is the evolution from VHS to streaming services.
Style Obsolescence (Fashion Obsolescence)
Fashion and trends change over time, which can result in a product no longer being desirable. However, as evidenced by the concept of retro styling and the cyclic nature of fashion, products can become desirable again. An example is clothes.
Functional Obsolescence
Over time, products wear out and break down. If parts are no longer available, the product can no longer work in the way it originally did. Also, if a service vital to its functioning is no longer available, it can become obsolete. An example is computers and phones being unable to run the latest OS.
Product Versioning
A business practice in which a company produces different models of the same product, and then charges different prices for each model.
Product Generations
A business practice in which a company releases a new group of products with more advanced features compared to an earlier group.
Rogers' Characteristics of Innovation and Consumers
Five characteristics identified by Rogers that impact consumer adoption of an innovation: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability, and triability.
Relative Advantage
The degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than a previous design due to efficiency, cost, ease of use, etc.
The degree to which an innovation is consistent with social norms, beliefs, and experiences of a target market.
Complexity (Simplicity)
The degree to which a design is perceived as difficult or easy to use.
The degree to which an innovation's benefits are available to the user.
Before and After
A marketing strategy that fosters observability, focusing on showing a user's potential life after using a product.
Side-by-Side Comparison
A marketing strategy that fosters observability, in which consumers can clearly see the differences between an innovation and similar products.
A marketing strategy that fosters observability, in which quotations, interviews, or reviews from other users are used to support a product.
The degree to which a potential user can experiment with an innovation before investing time and money into it.
The first individuals to adopt an innovation. They are willing to take risks. Also known as "risk-takers."
Early Adopters
The second fastest category to adopt an innovation. Also known as "hedgers."
Early Majority
The third fastest category to adopt an innovation. They tend to take more time to consider adopting new innovations and are inclined to draw feedback from early adopters before taking the risk of purchasing new products or systems. Also known as "waiters."
Late Majority
The fourth fastest category to adopt an innovation. They adopt innovations after they have been established in the marketplace and are seldom willing to take risks with new innovations. Also known as "skeptics."
The last category to adopt an innovation. They tend to prefer traditions, and are unwilling to take risks.
Social Roots of Consumerism
Consumerism is concerned with protecting customers from all organisations where there is an exchange relationship. The roots of consumerism can be traces through: disillusionment with the system; the performance gap; the consumer information gap; antagonism toward advertising; impersonal and unresponsive marketing institutions; intrusions of privacy; declining living standards; special problems of the disadvantaged; different views of the marketplace.
Marketing Specifications
__________ __________ relate to market and user characteristics of the proposed design and details.
Target Market
A general term for a large group of people that are targeted for advertising, marketing, or a particular product or service. It describes the market sectors and segments of a population.
Target Audience
A narrower term for a specific group of people within a target market at which a product or marketing message is aimed at. It describes the characteristics of users within each sector or segment.
Segmented (Geographical)
One of four ways to separate target markets: by shared geographical traits. Includes continent, country, region, city, density, climate, population, and city neighborhood.
Demographic (Sociographic)
One of four ways to separate target markets. Includes age, gender, family size, stage in family life cycle, occupation, income, education, religion, race, and nationality.
One of four ways to separate target markets: by similar attitudes, values, and lifestyles. Includes lifestyle, social class, personal values, attitudes, and AIOs - Activity, Interest, & Opinion.
One of four ways to separate target markets, relating to the type of behavior a consumer displays when making a purchasing decision, which is related to their knowledge of, attitude towards, use of, and response to a particular product. Includes occasions, degree of loyalty, benefits sought, usage, and user status.
Market Analysis
An appraisal of economic viability of the proposed design from a market perspective, taking into account fixed and variable costs and pricing. It is typically a summary about potential users and the market.
Economic Viability
A product's ability to make a profit. It is low if production costs are high and the potential audience is small or unwilling to pay. It is high if the demand is high despite high costs.
Fixed Costs
Costs that do not change regardless of quantity produced. Examples include rent, insurance, and salaries.
Variable Costs
Costs related to the volume of the product being produced. Resources, such as raw materials, are examples.
User Need
The essential requirements that a product must satisfy in relation to users and the market.
Research Methods
Thorough analysis of users, the target market, and competing designs through user research, user trials, literature reviews, expert appraisals, and performance tests.
Expert Appraisal
A research method. Reliance on the knowledge and skills of an expert in the operation of the product.
Literature Review
A research method. The use of consumer reports, newspapers, magazines, encyclopedias, manufacturers information, etc. to conduct research.
Performance Test
A research method. Testing and evaluating a product under specific conditions, such as drop tests or waterproofness.
User Research
A research method. Obtaining user responses through questionnaires, surveys, or interviews.
User Trial
A research method. The observation of people using a product and the collection of comments from people who have used the product.
Any company or product that can fulfill similar functions for a similar market.
Design Specifications
A list of requirements, constraints, and considerations that a yet-to-be-designed product must fulfill.
A type of design specification relating to elements of the design that cannot be changed. They are limitations or essential parts of the design. Examples include dimensions, cost, material, and process specifications.
A type of design specification relating to elements of the design that must be thought about. They often have multiple solutions, and it is up to the designer to find the optimum solution.