Psychology Exam Chapter 7

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102 Terms
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getting info into memory
retaining information over time
taking info out of storage
structural encoding
emphasizes on the physical structure of the stimulus, ex. is the word written in capital letters?
Phonemic encoding
emphasizes on what a word sounds like, ex. Doe the word rhyme with weight?
Semantic encoding
emphasizes the meaning of verbal input
Elaboration encoding
relate what you're trying to learn to things you already know
Imagery Encoding
making an image in your mind of what you're trying to learn
any little technique to help you remember something, ex. PEMDAS
Sensory memory
large capacity, brief representation of the entire thing you're perceiving in that moment, very brief retention:0.25 seconds
Short term memory
limited capacity, lasts only 20-30 seconds, conscious processing of information, sensory and long term combined
What is short term memory made of?
long and sensory memory
Original Sensory form
comes from sensory memory, but very short duration (visual=0.25 seconds), attend to short term memory, or it is lost
Short term memory
includes conscious processing and what we pull from our long term memory
familiar unit of information
What are the Baddeley 4 components of working memory?
Phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive, buffer
Phonological loop
recitation, original idea of short term memory
Visuospatial Sketchpad
manipulate images
Central executive
juggle information when reasoning
integrating multiple ideas and sending it to long term memory, we don't know if this is the hippocampus
Long term memory
long term storage of information
Procedural(Non-Declarative}) Memory
memories or action, skills, and conditioned responses, thought to be stored in cerebellum
Declarative memory
memory for factual information, much more likely to forget than procedural memory, thought to be stored in the limbic system
Semantic memory(semantic=meaning)
general knowledge, ex. state capitals, definitions
Episodic memory
personal experiences, much more likely to forget than semantic memory
State dependent memory
mental and physical state of the memory if you were drunk when you observed it, get drunk to remember it. Retrieval is best when the retrieval cues match the encoding cues
Serial Position Effect
we best recall first and last items on a list
primary effect, lack of interference
The tendency to remember the first part of the list
Recency effect, lack of interference
the tendency to remember the last part of the list
Critical word test
set of words, one word ties all words together , 50% recall, 80% recognition
Is memory perfect storage?
we tend to remember things consistent to our expectation (stereotyping, schema)
a cognitive framework or concept that helps organize and interpret information
Source monitoring error
when we remember something, but we misattribute where we got the info, ex. saying you saw something on the news, but you saw it on facebook
Flashbulb memories
ex. flood stories
Post event information
if we learn something about an event after it happens we tend to add it to our memory
Who was Elizabeth Loftus?
wording of questions lady
Misinformation effect
a simple change in learning, can be slipped into the witnesses memory
Herbing Ebbinghaus
nonsense syllables, (3 letters that go together with no word/association)
Relearning memory
the longer way to relearn the list, the more forgotten
Forgetting curve
forgetting is rapid at first, then slows
ineffective (shallow) Encoding
never in memory, psuedo-forgetting
Decay theory
information disappears over time, applies to sensory and short term memory but NOT to long term memory (we don't forget linearly)
Proactive interference
we learned something first, then learned something else, we don't remember the second thing (more common than retroactive interference)
Retroactive interference
we learned something first, then learned something else, we don't remember the first thing (less common than proactive interference)
Encoding specificity principle
we remember best when the cues available at the retrieval time are the same as the ones in decoding
Motivated forgetting(Freud)
repression, loss of memory for unpleasant stimuli
Repressed memory controversy
are they false? or true, some are true most are not (think girls thinking they had been sexually abused, influenced by therapists)
Consolidation of Memory
taking new information and putting into a long term form, seems to be done in the hippocampus, and while we sleep
Memory might be
the creation of neural circuits, increased potentiation at synapses
where is procedural memory stored?
Where is visual memory stored?
visual cortex
Where is auditory memory stored?
Auditory cortex
prenatal development
conception to birth, period of very rapid growth
What are the stages of development?
germinal stage, embryonic stage, fetal stage
Germinal stage
(30 hrs-2 weeks) zygote, ends with implantation
Embryonic stage
(implantation-6-8 weeks), organism is most vulnerable
Fetal stage
(23-25 wks to be viable, 24 weeks does NOT mean survival, just better chance than 23 weeks)
Full term baby
38 weeks, 7.5 pounds, 20 inches long
When is the organism at the biggest risk of birth defects?
Embryonic stage
medical term for any substance that can create a birth defect
What is the teratogen that is the #1 cause of low birth weight?
Cigarette smoking
What teratogen causes the highest chance of a #1 non-hereditary cognitive disability?
What drug can greatly increase the chance of miscarriage?
caffeine, more than 200mg a day doubled probability of miscarriage
Motor development
the mastery over arm and legs movement, voluntary movement
Children develop their skills from _____ to _____, and from the _________-_________.
head to foot, center-outward
Does culture influence development?
absolutely, some cultures babies are encouraged to be dependent whereas others influence babies to be independent
close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver
Freud and the behaviorists thought that __________ leads to an emotional bond.
feeding(freud called it "Oral Satisfaction" (creep))
Harry Harlow, wire v. cloth mother monkey experiment
baby monkey goes to soft and snuggly monkey with no food instead of a wire monkey with lot of food
Contact Comfort
an inherent need to have contact with something that seems alive
John Bowlby
babies are biologically programmed to do things for adult attention
Mary Ainsworth
Test of infant-caregiver attachment
Secure attachment(67%)
parent as home base, separation anxiety, consolable
What are the two forms of insecure attachment?
no apparent bond between child and parent, doesn't cry when parent leaves
clingy, when parent leaves crying, when mom comes back continue crying, anger
Secure cause
sensitive to signals and available
Avoidant cause
unavailable or rejecting
Anxious/ambivalent cause
inconsistant parenting
Disorganized cause
neglect or physical abuse
Stage theories of development
They move in a certain order, don't skip stages or go background, stage is determined by age
Erik Erikson
8 "'psychosocial crises" (turning point issues)
0-2 years old, learning to coordinate their senses and their motor movements, object permanence
Object permanence
objects continue to exist, even when we are not looking for them
2-7 years, children cannot yet perform operations, improved symbolic thought, children love to draw, make symbols, make significant improvement in language, errors: centration, irreversibility, egocentrism, animism
Concrete opperational
7-11 years can perform operations but only on specific examples, conservation, the hierarchy of liquid task, conservation of mass, numbers, hierarchical classification
changes in appearance do not change the essential elements of an object
Formal operational
systematic, hypothetical, abstract
Piaget's theory
stage changes not clear-cut, underestimated children’s abilities
Operation stage of thinking
some people never get to this stage
Piaget ignored
impact of training and culture
Piaget's contributions
children do construct their own knowledge, skill builds on a previous level
Lev Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development
emphasized social contexts of learning, guided participation, culture, language, private speech
Piaget thoughts:
cognitive development is universal, independent exploration, self talk irrelevant
Vygotsky thoughts:
cognitive development differs by culture, guided participation, critical for cog development
Lawrence Colbert;Moral development
gave an ethical dilemma and asked Ed what the main character have done in the simulation and why
Heinz dilemma
Woman needs a $2000 drug, husband can’t get money, tries his best, he breaks into the store for the drug. Should he have done that?
Preconventional-external authority
Avoid punishment ex. Heinz shouldn’t steal the drug cause he will go to jail Obtain rewards ex. Heinz should steal the drug so his wife will live.
Conventional Level-maintain order
Obtain Approval of Others ex. Heinz should steal the drug so his wife’s family likes him Rigidly obey rules ex. Heinz should not steal the drug cause it will make the druggist’s family sad.
Post conventional Level-ethics
Society’s rules-but their fallible ex. I’m gonna steal the drug even though it’s illegal cause it’s for my wife Equity and justice ex. Saving a human live is better than a charge for stolen medicine
Kohlberg’s theory criticisms
Stage mixing, Unrealistic senators, ignored Cultural and gender differences