Determine research design
Determine data collection method
Design data collection forms
Design sample and collect data
Analyze and interpret the data
Prepare the research report
A restatement of the decision problem in research terms, from the researcher’s perspective.
the Research Problem - questions to ask when defining it
What decision do you need to make?
What information do you need to know to make that decision?
What is the best way to get that information?
Qualitative Research Techniques
These techniques rely on subjective data that reports opinions rather than exact historical data.
Quantitative Research Techniques
This method uses statistical computations such as trend extensions, computer simulations, and economic models.
Highly flexible method that can gather a great deal of data from a respondent.
Good control of sample, speed of data collection, and response rate.
High cost per respondent.
Highly subject to interviewer bias and related interviewer effects.
Gathers information fast
Greater flexibility than mail surveys
Interviewers can explain or skip questions
Better response rates than mail surveys
Higher costs than mail
Interviewer may bias results
Limited quantity of data can be collected
Low response rate and bias
Can collect large amounts of information at a relatively low cost per respondent
Generates more truthful responses than phone interviews
Not flexible; study takes longer to finish
Low response rate
Little control over sample
Steps in the information-processing model and when they occur
Exposure: when stimulus come within range of sensory receptor nerves (vision)
Attention: when stimulus is “seen”
Interpretation: the assignment of meaning to received sensations
Memory: short term use of the meaning for immediate decision making or the longer term retention of the meaning.
Purchase & consumption decisions
Short term memory
portion of the total memory that is currently activated or in use
Short lived, limited capacity, elaborative activities (analysis, categorization, interpretation)
Long term memory
portion of total memory devoted to permanent information storage
(semantic & episodic)
The basic knowledge and feelings an individual has about a concept
the memory of a sequence of events in which a person participated
Organizing individual items into groups of related items that can be processed as a single unit
the continual repetition of a piece of information in order to hold it in current memory for use in problem solving or transferal to LTM
rewarding desirable behaviors such as brand purchases with a positive outcome that serves to reinforce the behavior
using an established relationship between one stimulus (music) and response (pleasant feelings) to bring about the learning of the same response (pleasant feelings) to a different stimulus
self + possessions (ppl define themselves in part w their possessions)
Disposal can create significant social problems as well as opportunities for marketers. Some consumers consider ease of disposition an important product attribute.
expanded usage situation
expanded usage situation strategies can produce major sales gains. (ex: baking soda)
a socially defined occasion that triggers specific behaviors that often have symbolic meaning. Ex: Christmas, Graduation, March Madness, Weddings
colors, aromas, music, crowding
tend to comply w social expectation, especially when behavior is visible
effect of time on consumer behavior (ex: pressure for time has made people turn towards online shopping more)
the reason the consumption activity is occurring.
Self vs. gift
to elicit return favors
states are features of the individual person that are not lasting characteristics
Moods: feeling states that are generally not tied to a specific event of object.
Momentary Conditions: Temporary states of being (tired, ill, having extra money, etc.)
Stages of the consumer decision process, what affects the intensity of the process
internal and limited external search, few alternatives, simple decision rules on a few attributes, and little post-purchase evaluation
Extended decision making
extensive internal and external search followed by a complex evaluation of multiple alternatives.
How Information Search is done by consumers (internal and external searches)
What alternatives exits to evaluate
What are the criteria to help evaluate the alternatives
How does each alternative perform on each criteria
alternatives the customer is aware of
alternatives given consideration
Maintenance marketing strategy
If the brand is purchased habitually (nominal) by the target market, the marketer’s strategy is to maintain that behavior. This requires consistent attention to product quality, distribution, and a reinforcement advertising strategy.
Disrupt marketing strategy
If the brand is not part of the evoked set and the target market engages in nominal decision making, the marketer’s first task is to disrupt the existing decision pattern. Tactics: free samples, coupons, striking package designs, comparative advertising.
Capture marketing strategy
Limited decision making generally involves a few brands evaluated on
only a few criteria. Brand is in evoked set. Search occurs mainly at the point-of-purchase or in readily available media. Objective is to capture as large a share as practical.
Intercept marketing strategy
If limited decision making and brand is not part of evoked set, objective will be to intercept the consumer during search. Emphasis will be on local media, point-of-purchase displays, shelf space, package design, etc. Coupons can also be effective.
preference marketing strategy
Extended decision making with the brand in the evoked set requires a preference strategy. marketer needs to structure information so brand stays preferred
by target market.
acceptance marketing strategy
Similar to preference strategy, but complicated by fact that target market is not seeking information about the brand. Beyond preference strategy, marketer must attract consumer attention or motivate brand learning. Incentives to try product, long-term advertising to enhance low-involvement learning and use of the Internet are useful for gaining acceptance.
Rational choice theory
Rational choice theory assumes the consumer has sufficient skills to calculate which option will maximize his/her value and will choose on this basis. The task is to identify the one optimal choice.
Bounded rationality and Metagoals in Decision Making:
Maximize accuracy of decision by providing all the info available
Minimize cognitive effort (don’t think just do it)
Minimize experience of negative emotion by eliminating conflict and stress
Maximize the ease of justifying the decision by keeping people happy (choose iBM)
tend to be more holistic. Product is not broken down into distinct components for separate evaluation. Evaluations generally focus on how they will make the user feel as they are used.
Involves the use of general attitudes, summary impressions, intuitions, no attribute-by-attribute comparisons are made at the time of choice.
Requires the knowledge of specific attributes at the time the choice is made, and it involves attribute-by-attribute comparisons across brands.
researcher uses judgment to determine dimensions underlying consumer evaluations of brand similarity
What is a Surrogate indicator?
Consumers can have difficulty judging competing brands on complex criteria such as quality or durability. So, often a Surrogate indicator is used to indicate another attribute. For example, consumers often use the following factors as surrogate indicators of quality (a.k.a. quality signals):
country of origin
Decision Rules for Attribute-Based Choices
Conjunctive decision rules
Establishes minimum required performance for each evaluative criterion.
Disjunctive decision rules
Establishes a minimum required performance for each important attribute (often a high level). All brands that meet or exceed the performance level for any key attribute are acceptable.
Elimination decision rules
First, evaluative criteria ranked in terms of importance. Second, cutoff point for each criterion is established. Finally (in order of attribute importance) brands are eliminated if they fail to meet or exceed the cutoff.
Lexicography decision rule
Consumer ranks the criteria in order of importance. Then selects brand that performs best on the most important attribute. If two or more brands tie, they are evaluated on the second most important attribute.
the brand that rates highest on the sum of the consumer’s judgments of the relevant evaluative criteria will be chosen
What is churn and why do companies what to minimize it?
Churn is a term used to refer to turnover in a firm’s customer base. Companies want to minimize churn because it typically costs more to obtain a new customer than to retain an existing one.
Describe Relationship marketing
An attempt to develop an ongoing, expanding exchange relationship with a firm’s customers.
a special self-regulatory unit created by the Advertising Division of the Better Business Bureau to review advertising aimed at children.
Communicate in truthful manner using understandable language
Address advertising to positive social behaviors
Present positive role models
Contribute positively to the parent-child relationship
Avoid marketing inappropriate products directly to children
Two major issues relating to comprehension in reference to marketing:
Research suggests younger children have difficulty understanding the selling intent of commercials
Some words and phrases difficult for children to understand
Health and safety advertising rules
Cannot include children participating in dangerous activities
Products advertised as “keep out of reach of children” not aired during children's programming
Be aware that advertising not directed at children can have potentially harmful consequences
CARU is active against...
Including characters on packaged boxes to promote “fun”
Ideal body types portrayed leading to eating disorders
More revealing clothing being promoted to children
Online privacy relates to collection and use of information from websites (up to age 13)
Prior parental consent
Collection of personal info
Parents access to info
FTC issued Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule in 1999