Myers Unit 2 Part 2 Terms

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36 Terms
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a periodic, natural loss of consciousness -- as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
circadian rhythm
our biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
REM sleep
a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active
alpha waves
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
NREM sleep
encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
hypnagogic sensations
bizarre experiences, such as jerking or a feeling of falling or floating weightlessly, while transitioning to sleep
delta waves
the large, slow brain waves associated with the deep sleep of NREM-3
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
a pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythm. In response to light, the SCN causes the pineal gland to adjust melatonin production, thus modifying our feelings of sleepiness
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. This sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
night terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind
manifest content
according to Freud, the symbolic, remembered story line of a dream
latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream
REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
psychoactive drugs
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods
substance use disorder
a disorder characterized by continued substance craving and use despite significant life disruption and/or physical risk
drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
alcohol use disorder
alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal, and a drive to continue problematic use
drugs that depress central nervous system activity, anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
a stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco
a powerful and addictive stimulant derived from the coca plant; produces temporarily increased alertness and euphoria
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
the street name for MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine); a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term half to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition
psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
near-death experience
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others