Chapter 6 Study Guide!!

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Where does an autotroph get it's sugar from
It can create its own sugar through photosynthesis
Where does a heterotroph get its sugar from
Its environment
Give examples of heterotroph/autotroph organisms
A: plants, some bacteria, some protists (moss, algae) H: animals, most bacteria, some protists, fungi (mold, mushrooms)
Whats the overall purpose of photosynthesis
To make sugar
Whats the overall purpose of LR
to use water and light to make NADPH and ATP
Whats the overall purpose of CC
to use NADPH and ATP and C02 and enzymes to make glucose
In which organelle does photosynthesis take place
Where does LR take place in chloroplast
membrane of thylakoid
Where does CC take place in chloroplast
What can stroma be compared to in the cell
Whats the equation for photosynthesis
6CO2+6H20+light=C6H12O6 (sugar) +6O2 ..(carbon dioxide + water + light = sugar + oxygen)
What inputs/outputs are part of LR
inputs: light and water outputs: oxygen
What inputs/outputs are part of CC
Inputs: CO2 (comes from outside) Outputs: sugar
What does LR make
Whats the function of pigment
to absorb light
Where are chloroplast pigments found
membrane of chloroplast
Which pigment is most abundant
chlorophyll (green)
What are the less abundant pigments called
accessory colors/pigment
What are the names of the accessory pigments and the specific colors they reflect
anthocyanins=reds/purps carotenoids=oranges/yellows
Why do leaves change color and die
Fall has a decrease in sun exposure and temps so chlorophyll production decreases. Plant would have to work and use extra energy to keep the leaves alive but the leaves can't produce the sugar/energy needed to give back so it's more 'cost-effective' to kill off the leaves. The plant reabsorbs chlorophyll first, exposing accessory pigments then they get absorbed eventually and the leaf dies
Definition of photosystem
cluster of chlorophyll molecules in thylakoid membraned
Definition of Primary Electron Acceptor (PEA)
special chlorophyll molecule that accepts excited electrons in photosystem (PSI/PSII)
Definition of Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
series of proteins that pass electrons from one protein to the next, usually used to create ATP
Definition of ATP Synthase
Enzyme that makes ATP when rotated
Whats the purpose of water in LR
to give electrons, specifically the hydrogens
Whats the purpose of light in LR
to excite the electrons
Whats the purpose of CO2 in CC
to make sugar
Explain what happens in LR
1. Water is split and gives its electrons to chlorophyll of PS2 2. Sunlight excites electrons of PS2 and they bounce around until they hit PEA 3. Electrons are transferred by ETC to PS1 and this engergy pumps hydrogen ions into thylakoid and causes a concentration gradient. Hydrogen ions rush out through ATP Synthase and creates ATP 4. Sunlight excites electrons of PS1 and they bounce around until they reach PEA 5. Electrons are carried through another ETC and make NADPH 6. ATP and NADPH are off to Calvin Cycle
What is NADPH
an electron carrier
What happens to the rate of photosynthesis when you increase light
Rate increases with light intensity but there will come a point all the electrons are excited and rate of photosynthesis becomes constant
What happens to the rate of photosynthesis when you increase temp
Rate increases with temp because photosynthesis works best in heat however if temp gets too extreme, protein will unfold causing photosynthesis to stop
What happens to the rate of photosynthesis when you increase CO2 Concentration
Rate increases with CO2 concentration until stroma gets saturated with CO2 and rate of photosynthesis will become constant
Whats a granum
stack of thylakoid
Whats a thylakoid
membrane-bound, flattened compartment inside of a chloroplast
What is photosynthesis
process in which sunlight energy is transformed into sugar