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the only valid way to know about somebody is to watch the person's behavior because personality is a set of learned responses to the environment
John Watson and B.F Skinner
best vantage point for understanding a person is from the outside because that is where the visible causes of behavior are to be found
all knowledge comes from experience
any two things, including ideas, become mentally associated as one if they are repeatedly experienced close together in time
people learn to seek pleasure and avoid pain
society is one that creates the most happiness for the largest number of people
change of behavior as a function of experience
the simplest way behavior changes as a result of experience
classical conditioning
an unconditioned response that is naturally elicited by one stimulus becomes elicited also by a new conditioned stimulus
learned helplessness
the feeling of anxiety due to the unpredictability that leads to a a behavioral pattern
operant conditioning
rewarded, more
If you are _____ for behavior then you will do it ______ often.
punished, less
If you are _______ for behavior then you will do it _____ often.
an aversive consequence that follows an act in order to stop it and prevent its repetition
availability of alternatives
the alternative response to the behavior that is being punished must be available
behavioral and situational specificity
be clear about exactly what behavior you are punishing and the circumstances under which it will and will not be punished
timing and consistency
a punishment needs to be applied immediately after the behavior you wish to prevent every time a behavior occurs
conditioning secondary punishing stimuli
one can lessen the actual use of punishment by conditioning secondary stimuli to it
avoid mixed messages
punish if you must punish but do not mix your messages
dangers of punishment
- can arouse emotions - difficult to be consistent - difficult to gauge the severity - teaches misuse of power - motivates concealment
Individuals differences in ______ reflect differences in learned responses to the environment.
social learning theory
claim that the ways people think, plan, perceive, and believe are important parts of learning that research must address the process
expectancy theory value
behavioral decisions are determined not just by the presence or size of reinforcement but also by any beliefs about the likely results of behavior
specific expectancy
belief that certain behavior, at a certain time and place will lead to specific outcomes
generalized expectancy
beliefs about whether anything you do is likely to make a difference
efficacy expectations
one's beliefs that one can perform a goal-directed behavior
observational learning
acquire behavior by watching someone else and observing the consequences
reciprocal determinism
analysis of how people shape their environments
expected consequences
a person knows the consequences based on thoughts and knowledge
cognitive perspective
our personality reflects how we process information about ourselves, others, and the world
hostile attribution bias
people learn to see the world as a hostile, threatening place
negative self-schemas
insulting thoughts about the self
people differ in their tendency to ....
experience emotion, express particular emotions, and understand/recognize emotion in others
emotional experience
- appraisal - physical responses - facial expressions - nonverbal behaviors
emotional intelligence
accurately perceiving emotions in oneself and others
cognitive control
how people feel and respond to the way they feel
- overall satisfaction with life - satisfaction with how things are going in certain instances - high levels of positive emotion and low levels of negative emotion
How can we study if emotion expressions are innate or socially learned?
1. we learn them 2. we are born with them because of emotion
activation of a concept or idea by repeatedly perceiving it or thinking about it
_______ can cause someone to perceive an ambiguous situation as threatening.
perceptual defense
process of failing to perceive stimuli that an individual from feeling too much anxiety
How we process information reflects our mental _______ of ourselves, others, and the world.
Decisions reached by an individual's _______ process determine many of their actions.
short-term memory
where the consciousness is located
any piece of information that can be thought of as a unit
rational system
is an analytic, logical, systematic, factual knowledge
experimental system
is holistic, affective, intuitive, insightful, and wise
motivated view
we burry hidden needs/desires in the unconscious
cognitive view
information perceived may get into unconscious and influence us but is not buried there
intelligence is a very general, mental capacity that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, and learn quickly from experience
provide a framework for encoding and integrating new information
___-_____ help you understand and organize your experiences and beliefs about yourself.
unrealistically positive self-schemas
rejection sensitivity
chronic accessibility of rejection relationship schemas
idiographic goals
those that are unique to the individual that supports them
nomothetic goals
relatively small number of essential motivations that almost everyone pursues
judgement goals
seeking to judge or validate an attribute in oneself
development goals
desire to actually improve oneself, to become smarter, more beautiful, or more popular
- the I - self as the perceiver: does the thinking and the describing
cognitive behavioral markers
- 18 to 24 months - mirror self-recognition
linguistic markers
- 1 to 2 years old - self-referencing with 1st person pronouns
emotional markers
- 2 to 3 years old - self-concept emotions
- the Me - self as object being perceived: is observed and described
the degree to which believe you are capable of succeeding a specific task
four important parts of the self
1. self-regulation 2. information-processing filter guiding us to focus on and remember the information that really matters to us 3. help us relate to other people 4. identity
self-discrepancy theory
you have not one but two kinds of desired selves and the difference between them and your actual self determines how you feel
ideal self
your view of what you could be at your best and who you'd like to be
ought self
your view of what you should be
your overall opinion about whether you are good or bad, worthy or unworthy, or somewhere in between
What measures self-esteem?
The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and The Single Item Self-Esteem Scale
________ have little influence of self-esteem development.
In childhood we have _____ self-esteem.
In adolescence self-esteem ______ particularly for girls.
In adulthood self-esteem _______ increases.
In old age self-esteem _______ sharply.
thinking that you are better than the other people who knows you thinks you are
declarative knowledge
consists of the facts and impressions that we consciously know and can describe
procedural knowledge
expressed through actions not words
self, others
The _____ is better at judging its own emotional experience, but ______ are better at judging assertiveness, humor, talkativeness, and more.
_______ is often to try to gain a broad view of one's own behavior to discover where one's strengths and weaknesses lie.
Why does self knowledge matter?
- choosing a career - choosing a partner - choosing a president - choosing how to spend your free time - choosing friends
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)
a list and decision of what were seen as major disorders of personality and other psychological afflictions
purposes of the DSM
- make psychological diagnosis more objective - gives the psychiatrist or therapist something to write on the insurance billing
personality disorder
a pattern of thought, feeling, and behavior that goes beyond the normal rang and causes problems for the affected individual or for others
steps to define personality traits
1. unusually extreme personality attributes 2. by definition tends to cause problems 3. affect social relationships and interactions 4. are stable over time 5. the person may not see it as a problem
cluster A
part of the old system that was categorized as odd and eccentric patterns of thinking
cluster B
part of the old system that was categorized as impulsive and erratic patterns of behavior
cluster C
part of the old system that was categorized as anxious and avoidant emotional styles
dimensional system
one or more pathological personality traits that are modern or greatly impairing the personality
_________ on the 5-point scale from Little or No _______ to extreme or modern as a disorder threshold.
negative affectivity
emotional lability, anxious attachment, submissiveness, hostility, depressivity, suspiciousness, etc.
withdrawal, intimacy avoidance, and anhedonia
manipulativeness, deceitfulness, grandiosity, attention seeking, callousness, and hostility
disinhibition vs. compulsivity
irresponsibility, impulsivity, distractability, risk taking, carelessness vs. rigid perfection
impaired, degree of dysfunction
Assess whether the client's "personality functioning" is seriously ________ and if so rate the ______________.
Assess whether at least one of the _____ defined types of personality disorder is present.
degree, five
Assess the _____ to which the client is characterized by each of the ____ maladaptive personality traits.
antisocial personality disorder
a pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others
borderline personality disorder
a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and effects, and marked impulsivity
the possible origin of bipolar disorder
the genetic risk factor that is combined with early family environments that doesn't teach children how to understand and regulate emotions
historonic personality disorder
(deleted in new system) a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking
narcissistic personality disorder
belief that one is superior
schizoid personality disorder
(deleted from new system) a pattern of detachment from social relationships and restricted range of emotional expression
schizotypal personality disorder
a pattern of acute discomfort in close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentricities in behavior
paranoid personality disorder
(deleted from the new system) a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness such that others' motives are interpreted as malevolent
avoidant personality disorder
a pattern of social inhibition, feeling of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
dependent personality disorder
(deleted from the new system) a pattern of submissive and clingy behavior related to an excessive need to be taken care of
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
a pattern of peroccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control
negative emotionality
_________ ________ is associated with poor physical health.
deal makers
traits that promote a good relationships
deal breakers
traits that prevent or undermine relationships
dispositional contempt
people with high scores come across as cold, arrogant, disagreeable, and emotionally fragile and insecure
rejection sensitivity
people are overly reactive to any indication that their partner might be losing interest or will soon reject them, leading to an anxious or panicked response
similarity is a good thing if the couple is similar and well-adjusted
mate selection and attraction
what one looks for in the opposite sex
mating strategies
how one handles heterosexual relationships
Gender differences in the experience of _______.
sexy son hypothesis
mating with an attractive but unstable male will produce sexier sons who will be more likely to reproduce
willingness to engage in sexual relations in the absence of a serious relationship
attachment theory
theory that focuses on patterns of relationships with others that are consistently repeated with different partners throughout life
occupational success
Employers want employees with certain traits to ensure _______ _______.
human capital formation
motivation, persistence, and self-control
________ = originality x usefulness
cultural diversity
the exposure to a broader range of ideas that leads to more creativity
Younger people have higher _______ intelligence.
Older people have higher _______ intelligence.
higher power
_____ ________ group members will generate more creative ideas.
low power
_______ ________ group members will generate fewer ideas when high-power members are present and will accept their ideas with no criticism.
broad attention focus
- positive emotions - good for thinking outside the box
detailed attention focus
- negative emotion - good for careful execution and polishing of projects
approach motivation
- focuses on gain and non-gains - high creativity but potentially less honesty
avoidance motivation
- focuses on losses and non-losses - better on detailed oriented tasks but low creativity