cmd 160: exam 2 (not mine)

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106 Terms
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speech development
the progressive evolving and shaping of individual sounds and syllables that are used as arbitrary symbols and applied in rule-governed combinations to produce words to communicate a person's wants, needs, thoughts, knowledge, and feelings
language development
the progressive growth of a receptive and expressive communication system for representing concepts using arbitrary symbols (sounds and words) and rule-governed combinations of those symbols (grammar).
theories of speech and language
- behavioral - nativist - semantic-cognitive - social-pragmatic
development behavioral theory
- bf skinner - says language is a set of verbal behaviors learned through operant conditioning
operant learning
learning model for changing behavior (rewards and punishments/spontaneous occurrence)
shaping (successive approximations)
reinforcement of each response that more closely resembles the target response until target response is aquired
behavioral theory clinical application
stimulus response (S-R) program
development nativist theory
- a perspective of language development that emphasize the acquisition of language as an INNATE, physiologically determined, and genetically transmitted phenomenon - "prewired" for language acquisition
nativist theory clinical application
- what a child has not learned naturally should be taught - ie: therapy
semantic-cognitive theory clinical application
- complexity: how complex the sentence is - amount: amount of information you are trying to convey in a sentence - rate: how quickly you say the sentence - duration: how long a child needs to think about what you are saying
development semantic-cognitive theory
- a perspective of language development that emphasizes the interrelationship between language learning and cognition - that is, meanings conveyed by a child's productions
early, mid, late speech developing sounds
sounds that favor ease of articulation are typically acquired FIRST, and more complex sounds are acquired LATER
browns morphemes
- present progressive (ing) - prepositions (in & on) - plural (-s) - irregular past (ran, wrote, swung) - possessive (-s, the girl's car) - uncontractable copula (it is -> not it is) - articles (the, an, a) - regular past tense (walked, faced, jumped) - third person present tense regular (-s, walks, drives, looks) - third person present tense irregular (is, does, goes, has) - uncontractable auxiliary "be" (he is running late) - contractible copula (he's running late) - contractible auxiliary (he's running late)
development social-pragmatic theory
- a perspective of language development that considers communication as the basic function of language - turn-taking (develop an attachment to caregiver and use joint attention in order to engage with verbal and nonverbal turn-taking)
efferent neurons
- brain to everywhere else (motor neurons) - convey impulse from top to bottom
social- pragmatic theory clinical application
- caregivers facilitate language development - SLPs assess and treat language impairments from social-communicative and contextual perspective
afferent neurons
- anywhere in the brain (sensory neurons) - convey impulse bottom to top
glial cells
- speed transmission up through neuron - cover parts of a neuron to make info be processed faster - remove dead cells from nervous system - located in the myelin sheath
occiptal lobe
temporal lobe
language, hearing, memory
parietal lobe
receives sensory input for touch and body position
frontal lobe
executive function
on diagram area 42 is
wernicke's area (processing)
on diagram area 44 is
broca's area (production)
left hemisphere specialization
- speech and language - sequential processing
right hemisphere specialization
- expressing emotion, face recognition - holistic processing
cranial nerves
- part of the peripheral nervous system - 12 pairs of cranial nerves - 31 pairs of spinal nerves
5 cranial nerves need to know
- 5: trigeminal nerve (helps chewing) - 7: facial (motor neurons to facial muscles) - 8: auditory (vestibulocochlea/balance) - 10: vagus (throat movement) ** - 12: hypoglossal (tongue movement)
vocal folds
thin membrane
coming together (closer)
separating (apart)
fundamental frequency
the lowest harmonic frequency, rate of how quickly your vocal cords vibrate
quiet breathing
automatic, passive, inhale and exhale equal time
speech breathing
exhale longer than inhale, to maintain pressure in order to speak
main parts of vocal tract
oral cavity, nasal cavity, velopharynx (where nasal and oral cavity meet), pharynx (back of throat to vocal chords)
structures of vocal tract
lips, teeth, alveolar ridge (hard palate), velum, tongue, mandible (jaw), tongue, pharyngeal wall
overlapping of adjacent articulations OR moving at the same time for different phonemes (ie: keep = k and e are coarticulated bc the shape of your mouth is already ready for the next sound)
what is phonology
knowledge of the language conventions or rules for combining sounds to produce sounds and sequences (language is rule based)
what is articulation
motor skills involved in producing sounds in sequence (motor movement)
what is a speech delay
a pattern that is typical for children that are younger, continues after sound should be learned (rabbit = wabbit)
what is a speech disorder
different/abnormal speech pattern unlike children at any age (ie: rabbit = abbit)
phonological processes
- cluster reduction (try = tie -"drop r") - weak syllable deletion (banana = nana) - final consonant deletion (dog = dah) - initial consonant deletion (disorder, dog = og)
related to: - # of sounds produced correctly (entire inventory) - accuracy of production (each sound correctly) - ability to produce sounds in diff. word positions - ability to produce sound sequences - ability to produce various types of words closely linked to intelligibility of speech - understand what they say (intelligible) - age 4 should be intelligible to familiar &unfamiliar listener
mild severity
- produce a few sounds in error - usually involves a few of the 'late 8' sounds (sh, th, s, z, l, r, dz) - generally intelligible to most speakers
moderate severity
- difficulty producing all the sounds within a single class (velars, final consonant deletion, incorrect use of sounds in certain word position, cluster reduction) - intelligible to friends and family members, but not to unfamiliar listeners - good prognosis but longer treatment
severe severity
- unintelligible to most listeners - more than six sounds in error in all positions of words - do not sequence sounds consistently - may rely heavily on gestures to communicate
speech disorder
different/abnormal speech pattern, unlike children at any age (should never happen)
etiology of funtional
- the cause cannot be determined - see it behaviorally
etiology of perceptual
- the way you hear something - cause: type of hearing loss - might have speech disorder
etiology of structural
problem with articulator (leads to a structural speech disorder)
etiology of motor
unable to move articulators the way they are supposed to be used
speech assessment
- goal: determine nature and severity of disorder/delay - describe production and compare speech patterns to others the same age (speech samples, articulation tests, note behaviors) - assess contributing factors (hearing screening, oral-mech examination)
speech intervention
treatment (articulation-based approaches, phonological approaches)
articulation-based approach
- teaching the motor movements necessary for speech - repetitive motor practice with feedback, done at various levels (phoneme, syllables, words, phrases, sentences)
phonological approach
- contrast therapy: show pictures representing word pairs that differ on one dimension (ie: Ring v Wing, Toe v Know) - final consonant deletion (ie: See v Seat)
types of cleft palate/lip
- unilateral cleft lip - bilateral cleft lip - unilateral cleft lip and palate - bilateral cleft lip and palate - cleft palate
unilateral cleft lip
knowt flashcard image
bilateral cleft lip
b, c
knowt flashcard image
unilateral cleft lip and palate
knowt flashcard image
bilateral cleft lip and palate
knowt flashcard image
velopharyngeal closure
- constriction formed by the velum and the rear wall of the pharynx, resulting in a diversion of the airstream into the oral cavity
cleft palate
knowt flashcard image
problems with the velopharyngeal closure
- hypernasal vowels (vowel air should come out of mouth, but instead it goes out nose) - nasal emission on consonants
the quality of sound produced through nasal passages
compensatory articulations
occlude the airway behind the velopharyngeal port for all stops (ie: glottal stops, pharyngeal stops, pharyngeal fricatives)
speech assessment for cleft lip and palate children
- articulation testing - examination of the speech production mechanism (aerodynamic studies, nasopharyngoscopy) - nasality (nasometer) - observation and judgement (nasality, speech production)
intervention for cleft lip and palate children
- articulation therapy - eliminate compensatory strategies already in place
childhood language disorders
- significant difficulties with the cognitive or linguistic abilities that support language learning - limitation in language form, content, or use that interfere with participation in social or academic activities
causes of language disorders
impairment of language form - infants/toddlers
- 0-2 - low frequency of vocalizations - lack of syllable productions in babbling
impairment of language form - preschoolers
- 2-5 - immature or disordered phonology - grammatical morphology errors
impairment of language form - school age
- 5-18 - difficulties with complex sentences - poor narrative and expository skills
impairment of language content - infants/toddlers
- 0-2 - understand few words in context - less than 50 words by age 2
impairment of language content - preschoolers
- 2-5 - restricted vocabulary size - reduced comprehension of basic concepts
impairment of language use - infants/toddlers
- 0-2 - lack of intentionality - restricted range of communicative functions
impairment of language content - school age
- 5-18 - incoherent stories - difficulties with figurative language
impairment of language use - preschoolers
- 2-5 - limited assertiveness and/or responsiveness - difficulty initiating and maintaining topics
indicators of language disorders
- test scores - language sample measures - negative social, psychological, educational, and vocational consequences
learning disability
- difficulty acquiring and using listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical ability - no known etiology
impairment of language use - school age
- 5-18 - inappropriate references (no filter) - poor topic maintenance
developmental language disorder/specific language impairment
- significant developmental delays despite: normal cognitive functioning, normal childhood experiences, normal hearing and vision, no signs of neurological impairment - affects 5-7% of school age population
intellectual disability
- significantly below average general intellectual functioning (IQ) - significant limitations in adaptive functioning (self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills)
autism spectrum disorder
- pervasive impairments like reciprocal social interaction skills, communication skills, stereotypical/repetitive behaviors, interests and activities - 0.5% of population
assessment of language
- team approach - standardized tests - language samples - non-biased assessment (dynamic assessment and multicultural considerations)
language stimulation expansion
add words to what the child says (ie: child: "blue", you: "blue car")
language stimulation extension
take what the child says and expand the thought (ie: child: "blue car", you: "blue car, oh there's a red car")
language stimulation recast
child says something incorrectly and you model it back correctly (ie: child: "two car", you: "yes I see two cars)
literacy-based intervention
- pre-reading discussions, multiple readings of the books, reinforcing concepts - mini lessons focusing on semantics, syntax, morphology, narration, and phonological awareness
language stimulation buildup & breakdown
- expanding and extending - breakdown what a child says
service delievery
- ages 0-3: gov. required to help families address children's special needs, infant parent programs - IDEA ages 3-21: free appropriate public education, least restrictive environment
easy, smooth, flowing, and effortless speech
marked by word or phrase repetitions, interjections, pauses, and revisions
- unusual, tense disfluencies that interfere with communication - unusually high durations of repetitions, prolongations, and/or blocks (know what they want to say but cannot produce it)
rapid bursts of dysrhythmic, unintelligible speech (do not know what they are trying to say)
repetitions (stuttering)
- repeated syllables in a word trying to be said (ie: b-b-b-b-baseball, I-I-I-I-I like baseball)
audible sound prolongations (stuttering)
- sound trying to be said continues (ie: mmmmmmmotorcycle)
inaudible sound prolongations (stuttering)
- blockage of the sound that is trying to be said (ie: b-------baseball)
primary stuttering behaviors
- sound syllable repetitions - audible sound prolongations - inaudible sound prolongations (blocks)
secondary stuttering behaviors
- counterproductive behaviors as people try to avoid primary stuttering behaviors - become more automatic
myths about stuttering
- stuttering is a nervous reaction - overly sensitive parents - are more introverted - have less self-confidence - have lower intelligence
etiology of stuttering
- inherited traits - external conditions
development of stuttering
- usually gradual - genetic predisposition - balance between demands and capacities
assessment of stuttering
- interviews & case history - speech samples - lang development - consistency - adaptation - feeling & attitudes - trial therapy
measures of stuttering
- non-stuttering disfluencies v stuttering-like disfluencies - frequency of stuttering - percentage of each disfluency type
stuttering modification
a therapy approach in which the clinician teaches the client to alter the way he or she stutters
fluency shaping
change the way people talk: aim for stutter-free speech