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Unit 4-Human geography

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72 Terms
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State
Largest political unit , is the formal term for country. Requirements needed: Defined boundary Contains a permanent population Maintains sovereignty to domestic and international affairs Recognized by other states(can be just one) Example: Brazil
Nation
Often confused with state or country, is a group of people who share a common ethnicity  Requirements needed: Share a common cultural heritage Have beliefs and values that unify them Claim particular space based on tradition as their homeland Desire to establish their own state to express self-determination Example: Catalonia/Catalans (in northern Spain)
Nation-state
A singular nation of people that fulfill requirements of a state Example:Japan
Stateless Nation
Cultural groups with no independent political entities attached to them Example: Kurdistan/Kurds
Multinational state
Country(state) that contains more than one nation Example: Canada
Multi State nation
Nation that stretches across the borders of multiple states Example: Hungary
Autonomous/Semi Autonomous region 
Defined area in a state that has a high degree of self-governance and freedom from its state  Example: Hong Kong
Sovereignty
Independence from control of outside states when it comes to  states own affairs 
Self-determination
Process by which a country establishes what it means to be  a state 
Imperialism
Influencing a country or group of people by force, economic control, or cultural dominance 
Colonialism
A particular  type of imperialism that focuses around the concept of direct rule 
First wave of European colonialism
Conquering ‚Äúundiscovered‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúunclaimed‚ÄĚ land Examples: Spanish and Portuguese in Latin and Central America The English with North America
Second wave of European colonialism
resource acquisition and the spread of western ideology  Examples: Berlin conference Spheres of influence on China
Berlin conference 
14 nations arbitrarily  claiming territory in *Africa* as colonies while in berlin without African representation Effects can still be seen based on the borders of states in Africa  Caused different ethically groups of people into one resulting in conflict 
Devolution
The transfer of political power from central government to subnational levels of government, typically along regional lines Can be built into a system and formalized: USA Can be a result of weak political infrastructure: Soviet Unions collapse with the fall of communism Can strain political sovereignty : Catalonia
Territoriality
A community’s or country’s sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep its inviolable and strongly defended Closely ties to the concept of sovereignty 
Cultural territoriality
Direct ties to centripetal and centrifugal forces Creates a sense of place Often comes with tension
Economic territoriality
Economic gain to be had by holding specific lands and territories  Colonization of Africa by European powers Disputes over the sovereignty of Sparty  islands
Neocolonialism
form of indirect control through the use of economic/political pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former colonies   Seen in East/South East Asia for labor Seen in Africa and Middle East for resource extraction
Shatterbelts:
Region endangered by local conflicts within states or between countries(states) in the area, as well as opposing great powers outside the region driven primarily by centrifugal forces Examples: Korea as a result of the Cold War (opposing great powers(North and south korea)) Kashmir due to the disputed claims of sovereignty from India, Pakistan, and China (countries surrounding the territory) Israel and Palestine because of the disputed territorial claims from the opposing sides (local conflict within the state)
Choke points
 geographical feature (sea or land), that has significant strategic importance Examples: The Panama Canal: Reduces length of trip from east to west coast of USA by 8000 nautical miles. \~12,000 ships pass through annually Gibraltar: Connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic. Still an important colonial holding for the UK.
Boundaries
 invisible line or feature that  marks the extent of a territory
Relic
Boundary that no longer exists as a boundary, but evidence of its existence can still be seen on the landscape Example: Berlin wall
Subsequent
 Boundary drawn to accommodate immediate developments  from a certain event after a population has settled in the region Example: Yugoslavia
Superimposed
 Boundaries drawn by powerful outsiders that DO NOT take into consideration existing cultural boundaries and divides Example: Imperial Africa/Berlin conference
Consequent
A boundary drawn to accommodate religions, ethnic, linguistic, or economic differences that have existed previously. Example: The partition of India and Pakistan
Antecedent
 boundary in the natural landscape that existed before the settlements. Typically mountains or bodies of water. Examples: the Pyrenees Mountains: Spain and France The Great Lakes of North America:The USA and Canada
Geometric
 boundary that follows a straight line or arc disregarding any physical or cultural differences. Example: the 49th parallel that separates Canada and the USA
Definition
The territory in question is negotiated and legally described. Identifies definitive start and stop
Delimitation
 the boundary is drawn on a map identifying the limits of the territory
Demarcation
Physical boundaries are put in place to identify the existence and limits of the boundary
Administration
The new boundary is maintained
Definitional disputes
Variation in the interpretation of the defined boundary
Territorial disputes
Questions about who should have claims to land based on population living in the territory Typically based on irredentism
Functional disputes
Variation in the interpretation of the administration of the boundary
 Resource disputes
Disagreement in which entity has rights to access a given resource
Irredentism
the annexation of territory based on a connection to part of the population that lives there Example: Annexation of the Sudetenland Two-state solution/Zionism Korean DMZ tries to counteract this
**The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)**
established rights and responsibilities of states concerning ownership/usage of the seas and their resources.
Territorial Sea
Up to 12 nautical miles of sovereignty; commercial vessels may pass but non-commercial vessels may be challenged
Contiguous Zone:
 Coastal states have limited sovereignty for up to 24 nautical miles, where they can enforce laws on customs, immigration, and sanitation
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
 Coastal states can explore, extract minerals , and manage up to 200 nautical miles
High Seas
Water beyond the EEZ open to all states
Voting District
Territorial subdivision dedicated to electing a representative to a legislative body
Redistricting
Establishing new voting districts due to changes in population
Gerrymandering
The drawing of boundaries for political districts by the party in power to increase or ensure their advantage.
Cracking
 Spreading like-minded voters into several districts to prevent a majority. Also referred to **as wasted vote gerrymandering**
Packing
Combining like-minded voters into one district to prevent them from affecting elections in other districts. Also referred to as **excess vote gerrymandering**
Federal State
 a state where there is a division of power between a central government and local territories/provinces/states Examples:  United States, Canada and Belgium
Unitary State
 a state that is governed as a single unit with a central, top-down form of governance where local territories only have power that is granted by the central government. Examples:  China, Italy and Japan
Ethnic Separatism
 Ethnic groups or minorities concentrated in a specific area look to gain independence/autonomy Example: Pakistan
Ethnic Cleansing
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic, racial and/or religious groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous Example: Rohingya crisis
Terrorism
 organized violence aimed at government and civilian targets that is intended to create fear in furtherance of political aims. Examples: Attack on 9/11 Taliban in Afghanistan
Subnationalism
 Primary allegiance to a traditional group or ethnicity rather than the state Examples: Canada with Quebec Belgium with Flanders and Wallonia
Balkanization
Can lead to disintegration of states into smaller independent states
Supranationalism
 political and/or economic alliance of three or more states that is formed for mutual benefit to promote shared goals or resolve disputes, but can limit the economic or political actions of member states creating a challenge to state sovereignty.
Uneven development
Variation in distribution of funds or access to resources within a state or between states
Ethnic Nationalist Movements
Attempt at self determination by a smaller ethnic group within a larger state Example: Catalonia and Scotland
Failed States
A state that is unable to project authority of its territory and peoples, and fails to administer its own boundaries Example: South Sudan, Afghanistan, Syria
Ethnonationalism
 An attempt to tie an ethnicity/ethnic identifier to the state Example:Japan
Centripetal forces
bind a state together resulting in a stronger identity and a feeling of unification.
Centrifugal forces
put strains on states resulting in instability, devolution, and failed states in some more drastic cases.
Economics and trade agreements
The European Coal and Steel Company (EU) United States-Mexico-Canada-Agreement(USMCA) Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN) African Union
Military
NATO (the largest military alliance in the world) United Nations(UN)
United Nations(UN)
Promote peace, security and human rights
 North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO)
Provide mutual defense of member states from countries like Russia
European Union(UN)
Integrate member states politically and economically
Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN)
Advance economic growth, peace, social progress and cultural and economic development in the region
United States-Mexico-Canada-Agreement(USMCA)
to stimulate free trade among members
 Arctic Council
Foster cooperation, coordination, and interaction among the Arctic states with participation of Arctic indigenous communities
African Union
Advocate peace, security, and stability on the continent through greater cooperation, economic development, and global integration
Environmental
United Nations(UN)  Arctic Council
Annexation
The process of legally adding territory to a city