Lab Practical Study Guide!

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Clinical Microbiology Laboratory!

129 Terms
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Bacillus, Coccus, or sprial
Staphylo, Strepto, Diplo
Primary stain: Crystal Violet 
Mordant (fixes the dye): Iodine 
Decolorizer agent: Ethyl Alcohol
Counter stain: Safranin
Carbolfuchsin (15 to 20 min) → Heat (3x hover over bunsen burner) → Acid Alcohol (20 sec) → Methylene Blue (60 seconds)
Primary stain: malachite green
Mordant: heat
Decolorizer: water
Counter stain: Safranin
used as a selective media for the isolation of pathogenic Staphylococci.
used to differentiate coagulase-negative staphylococci and identify the isolate as staphylococcus saprophyticus.
use to different potential pathogenic Staphylococci such as Staphylococcus aureus from other gram-positive catalase-positive cocci.
used to check for certain antibodies or antigens in body fluids including saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid or blood.
identify members of the group D streptococci. Enterococcus faecalis can grow in bile salt and hydrolyze esculin, forming a black slant.
A selective and differential medium to isolate gram - enteric bacteria and differentiate lactose-fermenting from non-lactose -fermenting gram - bacteria
A selective and differential medium to recover gastrointestinal pathogens
1. On one end, select colony with the needle
2. Gently pull inoculating wire through by twirling 
3. Push wire in until you reach H2S-indole compartment; notice a notch in the wire
4. Break of wire
5. With the wire punch holes on the bottom of last eight compartments
 is a retrovirus that uses reverse transcriptase to convert ss RNA to dsDNA
In the forensic lab, a robber was in a man's house and the two struggled until the robber escaped. However, the man was sure the robber was injured and blood was at the crime scene. The police found two suspects and their blood was drawn. With this, they compare the suspect’s blood to the one on the crime scene.

*If the RBCs possess a particular antigen on their surface, agglutination will  occur when combined with an antibody directed towards that specific antigen.
a clear area on a lawn of bacteria or a monolayer of cells, where viruses have destroyed the cells
Serial dilution is the process of stepwise dilution of a solution with an associated dilution factor.

A small amount of a well-mixed solution is transferred into a new container, and additional water or other solvent * is added to dilute the original solution. The diluted sample is then used as the base solution to make an additional dilution.
Examples: Molds, mushrooms, yeast

Characteristics: multicellular except yeast, moist environment to prevent drying, chemoheterotrophs that use absorption
causes black mold on certain fruits and vegetables. Large #s of spores if inhaled, can cause serious lung disease

Microscope: 200X
widely distributed in nature, often found living in foods and indoor environments. Renamed as Penicillium chrysogenum. Consists of brush-shaped conidiophores. It is the source of several B-lactam antibiotics.

Microscope: 200X (Use Phase-Contrast, Ph2 or low light to better observe conidia)
AKA black bread mold
It has cosmopolitan distribution. It may cause serious opportunistic lung infections (zygomycosis)

Microscope: 200X (Both Zygospore and Sporangiospores)
Normal flora suppress growth in mouth and genitourinary tract. An intact immune system also keeps growth in check. It is a common cause of thrush, vaginitis, and may cause UTIs. 

Microscope: 1000X (oil)
 Balantidium coli: Trophozoites

*Trophozoites: found in large intestine and invade and multiply
*Balantidium coli: contamination of food or water (not washed)
Vaginal Smear 

Falls under Flagellates 
*No symptoms for men, sexually transmitted infection (multiplied by multiple sexual partners by using no protection)
Blood Smear: Promastigotes
Falls under Flagellates 

*Promastigotes: needs a vector: sand fly 
bite, scratch, feces get into the bloodstream
Falls under Flagellates
Blood Smear: Gametocytes "crescent" 

Falls under Apicomplexan
*Malaria; host: human, mosquito (meiosis)
Brain Specimen: Cysts with Bradyzoites
Falls under Apicomplexan
*feces in cats, different host (complex), pregnant women need to be mindful (goes to the placenta)