developmental psych exam 2

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the activity of knowing & processing, through which knowledge is acquired
flexible question-answer techniques, standardization
piaget's clinical method involved _____ rather than _____
an organized way of thinking or acting that allows us to interpret our experiences
example of a behaviorist schema
grasping a block or a bottle of milk
example of a symbolic schema
creating a mental model of a horse or bear
adjusting to the demands of one’s environment
interpreting new experiences in terms of already existing schema. (Ex: the first time a child sees a plane, they assume it is a large, loud bird)
the process of modifying existing schema to better fit new experiences (Ex: the first time a child sees a lamb, they assume its a dog and are corrected; they now have to modify what they know of as a dog and introduce the schema of a lamb)
cognitive conflict, which a person attempts to resolve through, for example, accommodation
sensory-motor stage
piaget's first stage of intellectual development (0-18 months)
reflex activity substage
birth-1 month old, involves exercising inborn reflexes
primary circular reactions substage
1-4 months, interesting acts on the child’s own body are repeated
secondary circular reactions substage
4-8 months, repetition of interesting acts on objects
coordination of secondary schemes substage
8-12 months, in which there is a combination of acts to solve a problem/achieve a goal
tertiary circular reactions substage
12-18 months, an infant finds new ways to solve problems or produce interesting results
beginning of thought substage
18-24 months first evidence of insight & ability to solve a problem mentally using symbols to stand for objects
object permanence
a concept in which children realize that things don’t necessarily cease to exist just because they can no longer be detected by the five senses. this ability implies that the child can retain a mental image.
example of object permanence
a child cries and reaches for a favorite toy they were playing with after it had been put inside a toy box
18 months
piaget believed that object permanence was grasped at age _____, but recent evidence shows that it develops earlier than he thought.
example of tertiary reactions
a child stuffing cereal in the mouth, then the ears, then the hair, then the floor, and is experimenting to find new solutions to problems
example of beginning of thought
a child is not allowed to play with dad’s ring of keys, but they discover that they can “pretend” that a ring of metal tabs are the car keys. they are using a symbol to stand in for the actual car keys
preoperational stage
piaget's second stage of development, occurring from age 2-7, titled as such because, supposedly, logical thinking does not yet exist in this stage; is coupled with increased symbolic capacity and language usage.
logical thinking actually occurs _____ than piaget thought
a key feature of the preoperational stage, involves the inability to take another person’s point of view (quite literally so)
example of egocentrism
a child holding up their fingers to mime how old they are when asked how old they are over the phone, believing that, since they can see their fingers, the person on the other line must be able to as well
an example of illogical thinking during the preoperational stage, involves attributing human qualities to non-human entities
example of animism
thinking that clouds move by walking through the sky on their legs, because they get bored staying where they are
lack of ability to conserve
an illogical feature of the preoperational stage involving a child’s notion that all aspects of things change once there is a change in some superficial appearance of an object, the idea that once something has changed, it is impossible to change it back
the process of mentally undoing an action
concrete operations stage
piaget's third stage of development (ages 7-12) in which a child is noticeably less egocentric, can understand conservation, and is capable of utilizing reversibility; the way the world appears physically is something that the child can imagine readily and is capable of understanding
the ability to order things from smallest to largest, shortest to tallest, lightest to darkest, etc., a feature of the concrete operations stage
formal operational stage
piaget's fourth stage of development (entered at age 12), differentiated from the concrete operational stage in that these thinkers can think about and imagine hypotheticals and possibilities and engage in hypothetical deductive thinking
example of hypothetical deductive thinking
a teacher asks their class what would happen if gravity didn’t exist, and a student answers that they would have to redesign classrooms with desks on the ceiling; the child can invent ideas that are contrary to actual facts
generating all possible hypotheses
the first step in hypothetical deductive thinking
more likely to rebel against the inconsistencies they are able to detect in the world
one implication of formal operational thought is that adolescents are _____than children are.
imaginary audience
the teen feels as though they are on display, much like an actor on a stage (ex: spilling water on your pants and refusing to go to class because people might stare at you)
personal fable
a story the teen tells themselves about themselves that is not inherently true (“no one could experience the heartache that I have had since I broke up with my partner”; “I will never die”). this can cause teens to take unnecessary risks
post-formal thinking
goes beyond Piaget and beyond formal operations., involving a consideration of relativistic thinking
absolutist thinking
involves the notion that there is only one right answer to a question (one truth)
relativistic thinking
assumes that there may be a number of answers to a given question
absolutist, relativistic
perry found that many students tended to be _____ in their thinking when they first entered college, but grew to be _____ thinkers by the end of college
characteristics of post-formal thinking
understanding that knowledge is relative, accepting that the world is full of contradictions, and integrating contradictions into a much larger understanding
do not
older adults (65+) _____ perform as well as younger adults on formal operational tasks
describing, explaining
piaget’s theory does a nice job of _____ development, but it does a poor job of _____ it.
sociocultural theories
suggest that in order to help students learn, teachers should make learning a cooperative activity among peers
involves the guided assistance that a skilled individual provides to a less skilled person; as the student’s performance improves, the teacher or parent provides less and less assistance
private speech
what we say to ourselves under our breath, suggested by vygotsky to be a sign of cognitive maturing
example of private speech
4-year-old jackie mutters to herself the order of blocks as she stacks them while playing
charles spearman’s formula for intelligence
g + s; "g" referring to general intelligence, "s" referring to specific types of intelligence (reading comprehension, arithmetic, spatial ability, etc.)
fluid intelligence
reflects skills that are not learned or taught in school/life, but are innate (inborn) intellectual capacity
examples of fluid intelligence
visual-spatial skills, inductive reasoning (reasoning from the particular to the general), verbal nonsense memory
crystalized intelligence
reflects skills that are learned in school and through the process of living
examples of crystalized intelligence
vocabulary, reading comprehension, & general information
decreases, increasing
as fluid intelligence _____, crystallized intelligence is _____
gardner’s theory of intelligence
reflects the notion that no single IQ score can meaningfully assess intelligence
interpersonal intelligence
exceptional sensitivity to others’ motivations and moods
bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
use of one’s body to create or perform things, like athletics and dance
spatial intelligence
the ability to visually understand and interpret things in 2 and 3 dimensions, as is evident in the work of architects who visually and mentally transform structures and buildings
speed of habituation score
best reflector of later intelligence from infancy; intelligent infants are ones that tend to get bored with familiar material more quickly (and thus seek out more novel information)
cumulative deficit hypothesis
used to explain how the negative effects of an impoverished environment snowball over time to create lower and lower IQ scores as a child gets older
early intervention programs
tend to result in IQ gains to some extent, but these gains tend to fade as the program ends
terminal drop
a rapid decline in elderly peoples’ intellectual abilities a few months/years prior to their death
culture fair test
a test that includes questions that are equally familiar or unfamiliar to kids from all cultures. few tests meet this standard, and there are no culture-free tests
terman’s longitudinal study of gifted children
indicated that children with IQs of 130 and above are (generally) well adjusted, mentally mature, happy, healthy, & productive
advanced language
one primary way that gifted children stand out is through their _____ skills
information processing perspective
sees changes in adolescents’ cognitive abilities as evidence of gradual transformations in the capacity to change, to use, and to store information
risk factors that have a negative impact on a child’s IQ score
a father being absent from the family, having a mother with poor mental health, and the head of the household being unemployed
the ability to produce novel responses that are valued by others, involving the production of ideas that are original and meaningful
convergent thinking
involves tasks with one correct answer
example of convergent thinking
how much is 5+3
divergent thinking
involves tasks where a variety of answers to one question are possible
ideational fluency
involves the ability to generate many interesting new ideas
research on intelligence and creativity has shown that highly creative people _____ have below-average IQs
childhood adversity
many early studies suggested that _____ was the driving force behind childhood creativity, as children may use fantasy play as a form of escapism
methods to foster creativity
allowing a child the freedom to explore their environment, allowing them to experiment, and encouraging nonconformity (NOT warmness and closeness between parent and child).
simon & bennet's IQ test
developed in france in order to be able to identify kids who were too “dull” intellectually to be able to benefit from the regular school system/curriculum, places children on a “bell curve” of scores
looking-glass self
our understanding of self being a reflection of how others respond to us; a reflective appraisal of others’ views of us
"big five" traits of personality
Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism (OCEAN)
the act of an infant recognizing themselves and their appearance in a reflection/photograph, developed at around age 18 months; most newborns have no sense of self
categorical self
involves classifying oneself into different social categories, the first of which are usually age and gender
a genetically based tendency to respond in a predictable way that is first seen in early infancy; can sometimes be shaped by environment
easy temperament
characterized by happiness and openness to new experiences, summarizing the majority of children
difficult temperament
involves high irritability and negative reactions to change
slow-to-warm-up temperament
involves a child who is relatively inactive and has mild reactions to changes in routine
behavioral inhibition
defines children who are high in neuroticism and low in extroversion; even though it's biologically rooted, it can change throughout the course of a person’s lifetime depending on their upbringing and experiences
the tendency to actively approach a new situation in a positive way
negative affectivity
a person who tends to be irritable, fearful, sad, and easily frustrated
self-concept of preschoolers
based on physical traits like size rather than psychological ones
self-description of those 8 and up
focuses more on social qualities, such as generosity
social comparison
increases as a child begins second or third grade. by this stage, kids realize that some other kids are better than they are at certain things
self-conception/social-comparison of preschoolers
tend to see themselves as the greatest at doing things. as such, they tend to be devastated if they are outdone by others, especially a member of the opposite sex. they also tend to be very poor at making comparisons between their skill level and that of their peers
harter’s self-perception research with older children
indicated that self-esteem is multidimensional, consisting of several dimensions, which may include scholastic ability, social acceptance and popularity, behavioral conduct, athletic competence, physical appearance, etc.
ideal self
represents positive things that we wish were true of ourselves (wanting to be smarter, less fearful, etc.)
personality tends to fully "gel" around age _____
diffusion identity status (diffusion status)
having no conflict, no crisis, and “no clue” about future plans; the person has no idea what they want to be as an “adult” and could not care less, even about exploring possibilities. parents tend to be neglectful or rejecting of those in this status.
foreclosure identity status (foreclosure status)
having put little thought into the future, but forming one’s opinions based on those around them (especially their parents/caretakers). while there is commitment, the person has no goals of their own, and only works off of the goals that others have laid out for them. there is no crisis because the decision has already been made by someone else; parents of these individuals tend to be rather autocratic and authoritarian
moratorium identity status (moratorium status)
a very active exploration of options without a firm commitment yet. often involves a lot of crisis because the person doesn’t yet know which choice to make. it is a “time out” where the person is relatively free from long-term commitments; there is time to actively explore different options.
identity achievement status
the search is over; a person has made a firm commitment to one option among several. the rate of this can differ across domains of identity (other than career, these domains include religious commitment, political affiliation, romantic life, etc.)
negative identity
identification with all those behaviors and roles that are seen as negative and wrong by those in positions of authority, such as parents and society at large
ideal-real self gap
older people may retain a high sense of self-image by reducing the ____
ways to reduce the ideal-real self gap
accepting a lower standard for what is ideal, improving one's life skills to bring them closer to the ideal.
elderly adult
the ideal self, present self, and real self are most similar in the _____ years
self-esteem of elderly people
often involves comparing themselves to older and more unhealthy people in order to remain positive about their situation
trust vs mistrust stage
occurs in infancy; if an infant’s needs are dependently met, infants should develop a sense of basic trust
autonomy vs shame and doubt
2.5-year-old anthony is throwing a temper tantrum when he does not get his way. this is his way of trying to assert his independence or autonomy
initiative vs guilt
preschoolers tend to start tasks and carry them out or they tend to feel regretful about their efforts to be independent (ex: four-year-old christy is in the kitchen making dinner (as well as a big mess). she says to her mother, “surprise! I am making dinner!”)
industry vs inferiority
characterizes elementary school children. this is the time when kids become successful at sports, school subjects, and making friends or, if these acquisitions did not work out, the child may tend to feel sub-par
ego identity vs role confusion
occurs in teen year when the teen is testing certain roles in order to integrate them into a single identity or they become confused about who they are
intimacy vs isolation
encompasses the experiences of young adults; is the person able to form emotionally close relationships (especially with one specific person), or do they feel socially separated?
generativity vs stagnation
in their 40s and 50s (middle age), people hopefully discover joy in contributing to the world or to the welfare of their children. If not, they may lack a sense of purpose
ego integrity vs despair
in old age, is a person comfortable with their own mortality, or do they fear death? does the person feel as though their life has been worthwhile, or are they angry and bitter because life did not turn out the way they wanted it to?
midlife crisis
most middle-aged people experience some questioning of self, but few experience a true _____
responsible for a continued high level of performance
example of optimization
joan has been an attorney for 35 years and takes many hours of extra legal education courses in order to keep her skills sharp. she practices on her own as if she were in court arguing a case
honeymoon phase of retirement
a month or so after retirement when a person loves the freedom of being retired and not having to work
disenchantment stage of retirement
a person feels as though they have nothing left to do in life, and retirement is no longer blissful- the retiree is now “bored” with their condition
reorientation phase of retirement
a person begins to develop realistic and satisfying expectations, interests, and hobbies
pre-retirement phase
a person is not yet retired, but is talking with their spouse and/or their peers about their financial status and when they might be able to afford to retire
involuntary retirement
typically a negative retirement experience involving someone being "forced" to retire, often due to things like poor health
activity theory on aging
suggests that we take an active role in dealing with aging, such as taking up new hobbies to occupy spare time (tends to result in the most successful aging)
disengagement theory on aging
argues that elderly, retired individuals passively disengage from people, places, and activities as a preparation for death
gender roles
society’s set of expectations regarding behaviors and traits considered to be appropriate for men as compared to women
gender role norms
desirable characteristics in culture or time in history for a particular gender
example of gender role norms
in the 1950s, women were socialized to believe that they should take care of the home/children while men go off to work
gender role stereotypes
fixed, rigid overgeneralizations regarding what men and women enjoy or are good at doing (most are incorrect, with a select few actually being based in fact)
instrumental role
being essential to providing financial & physical security for one’s family, typically expected of men
expressive role
nurturing the children emotionally & responding to their behavior, typically expected of women
sex cleavage/gender segregation
the phenomenon in which young children initially segregate themselves into same-sex play groups because their play styles are “too different” from one another
2.5-3 years of age
children learn gender roles and their stereotypes around the point that they become aware of their basic gender identities, at around age _____
by about age _____, most children have formed fixed, rigid ideas about gender, and will be quite upset by violations of gender norms
by age _____, children have a more firm sense of their own gender identity, and, as a result, they develop more flexible rules about appropriate gendered behaviors
young elementary school children (kindergarteners), adolescents
the two groups that view violations of gender roles most negatively are _____ and _____
secretion of testosterone
biological event that directly results in the growth of a penis in a male fetus
androgenized females
girls/women who have been exposed prenatally to androgens (“male” hormones), tend to have masculinized genitalia and act more masculinely
differential reinforcement
when parents, especially fathers, reward some behaviors based on their child’s gender; used by social learning theorists to explain the acquisition of "appropriate" gender role behaviors
inappropriate differential treatment
a phenomenon in which, for example, some parents attribute their daughters’ math successes to luck rather than ability, which may have their daughters become convinced that they are not good at math, but is just always lucky
kohlberg's cognitive-developmental theory of gender typing
sees kids as being more active in the socialization process, in contrast to social learning theory
the idea that children want to do the things that they learn are "meant" to be done by their gender and will thus actively carry out these behaviors
gender stability
one's gender becoming stable over time, but not necessarily across situations (occurs around age 3.5)
gender consistency
when one's sense of gender is salient across both time and situations (occurs around age 5-7, last stage of gender acquisition)
refers to people who are high in both masculine and feminine traits
androgyny shift
during the middle of their life, people begin to adopt some of the gender traits associated with different genders
infant sexuality
the idea that babies seem to derive pleasure from oral stimulation, their genitals are sensitive to stimulation, and they undergo what appear to be “orgasms.”
according to freud, during the school-age years (6-9), children _____ their sexuality
impacts of sexual abuse
seem to be most severe when it is a frequent, long-term event involving a close relative
common, not necessarily
homosexual experimentation is fairly _____ during adolescence, and is _____ an indicator of lasting homosexuality later in life.
permissiveness with affection
sex/sexual acts in a committed relationship are seen to be much more accepted than casual sex
low-risk teens
research on abstainers, low-risk takers, and high-risk takers found that _____ were the most likely to be in a committed relationship
components of "new teen sexuality"
there is greater confusion about sexual norms than in the past (ex: some very religious teens may see pre-marital sex as “sinful,” whereas those who are non-religious may see it as very natural), sex with affection is deemed as okay, and the double standard of what is okay for men/boys is not okay for women/girls is declining.
learning theory of language
states that we learn a language the same way we learn everything else- through observation and imitation
the meaning of words and language, acquisition best explained by learning theory
language acquisition device
chomsky's nativist theory idea of an inborn mechanism for sifting through language that we hear as well as for generating rules for that language
the rules that indicate how words are to be combined to form meaningful/intelligible sentences, acquisition best explained by nativist theory/the concept of a language acquisition device
interactionist view of language
states that biological factors and one’s environment are both critical parts of language development
child-directed speech
when adults change their speech when talking to infants and young children so that their speech patterns become simpler, clearer, and more repetitive than normal
the process of responding to a child in a more “grammatically correct/complete” expression of the same idea, used to foster more effective communication rather than to "teach" grammar
symbolic schemes
mental symbols (such as words or images) are used to represent some experience, favored by piaget to explain language development in young children
moral affect
how a person feels about an action; negative feelings include shame, guilt, and anxiety, whereas positive feelings include pride and self-satisfaction
moral reasoning
how a person makes a decision about whether an action is “right” or “wrong”
moral behavior
how a person actually behaves in a situation when faced with temptation
preconventional level of moral reasoning
a person behaves in ways to avoid punishment; if there’s no chance of being punished, the person will cheat, lie, steal, etc. to get what they need or want
conventional level of moral reasoning
a person behaves in ways that can earn approval and avoid disapproval from others (for example, refusing to cheat on school exams because you know it goes against the rules and others will look down on you for it)
post-conventional level of moral reasoning
while the rules of society are usually obeyed, sometimes it is considered okay or morally correct to break the rules when they violate some central ethical principle (for example, in the 1960s, civil rights workers in the south violated certain rules about where it was "appropriate" for black individuals to eat lunch, sit on a bus, etc.)
immanent justice
the concept or belief that wrongdoing will surely be punished
example of immanent justice
if a child steals 5 dollars from their parent’s purse, they may believe that something bad will happen to them; after school, Jeff has some Kool-Aid in the living room, even though he knows the rule is to eat and drink in the kitchen- his rat later dies, and he decides that it is dead due to his bad actions.
inductive discipline
involves explaining to a child why it is bad to do something, like breaking a rule, rather than engaging in physical punishment to deter a child from breaking a rule.
debating moral matters with peers promotes the development of moral reasoning _____ than lectures from parents, listening to religious sermons, and/or discussing moral matters with parents
verbal nonsense memory
memory for “nonsense” syllables, like “ferk” or “juxaf,” an example of fluid intelligence
identical twins reared apart are more alike than fraternal twins reared together
the strongest piece of evidence showing that genetics influence intelligence is _____
a good person-environment fit
_____ can change a child's temperament
a child who has just moved and is starting middle school (2 different significant life changes)
who is most likely to experience a decline in self-esteem?
identity achievement
_____ represents religious experimentation that leads to a firm commitment to join a particular group
it is true/false that most adolescents identity issues regarding career choice, religion, and politics are resolved around the same time
example of negative identity
dropping out of school and engaging in petty crime to get back at one’s unsupportive parents
with age, people generally take a more _____ view of what they did in the past
poor physical and mental health
declines in intellectual performance in old age are often related to _____
self-esteem ratings tend to be highest when people are in their _____ (age)
example of gender role norms
a man thinking that men aren't as emotional as women, so he won't cry at a funeral
don't have
most gender role stereotypes have/don't have empirical support
in order to resolve the internal conflict that arises during the phallic stage, a child tends to identify with the _____ parent
issue with social learning theory
it presents children as being rather passive participants in the development of gender norms
issue with kohlberg's cognitive developmental theory on gender typing
the idea that children develop gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability
prenatal hormones
research on sexual orientation shows that _____ may predispose people to develop certain orientations
fairly stable
broad personality elements tend to be _____ across adulthood
example of understanding gender consistency
knowing that a boy dressing in feminine clothes does not actually make them girls
kids begin to attempt to explain why people do what they do
what important advancement in social cognition occurs at age 11-12?
example of secondary circular reactions
once, when she was about to take a nap, baby caroline accidentally sucked on her blanket. she now does this every time she is trying to go to sleep
example of lacking conservation
being asked to choose between two cookies and choosing the broken one because three cookies are better than one