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43 Terms
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William byrd
English composer
don juan of austria
-bastard son of Charles v -fights the ottoman turks at lepanto
Thomas tallis
English composer, mostly all vocal pieces
st francis xavier
-greatest evangelist, 30k converts -travels everywhere, learns all the languages -taught poor children
st Ignatius Loyola
-Spanish soldier who converts -religious order of trained soldiers = Jesuits -writes spiritual exercises
pope Julius II
-warrior pope named after Caesar -leads Italian armies against enemies -exiled Borgias -rebuilt st peters -starts swiss guard
-greatest wood carver ever -photo realistic paintings -the "da vinci" of the german era
pope paul ii
buys art for vatican
Bruegel the elder
-dutch/flemist who likes to paint landscape
Josquin de prez
-amazing musician, first polyphony master
el greco
-best Spanish painter -colors and elongated shapes
henry viii
-8 wives (rizz) -fat! -gets annulment from catherine of aragon -1534: act of supremacy- becomes pope of English church
st Thomas more
-writes "Utopia" -humanist, lord high chancellor of England -some beef with luther
pope alexander VI
-house of Borgia -multiple wives and illegitimate kids -prince of Italy and excellent Politian
queen Isabella of spain
-fixes economy and crime -finances columbus' voyage -expels jews and muslims -great catholic (according to mr ghandhi but thats not true at all she literally is a horrible person but okay!) -sets up government
Giordano bruno
-myth: "he is first martyr for science" -not a scientist, he just believes a lot of theories -most likely executed because of heresy, not science
tycho brahe
-greatest pre telescope astronomer -Tychonian model, observes supernova -drunk moose, golden nose
the renaissance big 3
-Da Vinci (hyper realistic -Michelangelo (best sculptor ever) -Raphael
Tomas Victoria
Spanish composer born after reformation
-2nd most famous Italian poet -hates scholasticism -invented term "dark age" -writes about lover "laura" -self aware--> writes "secretum"
lorenzo de medici
-head of italic league(ensures peace in Italy) -fighting against Hapsburgs and France (trying to take over Italy)
Nicolaus Copernicus
-first major Heliocentrist proponent, Polish -simplifies the math -doesn't publish heliocentrist stuff til death bed because theres evidence against it, and people have believed in geocentrism forever. -myth that he doesnt publish bc he's scared of the church
Italian composer known for peaceful style
-French author who writes gargantua and Pantagruel -language master
William cecil
-powerful protestant cheif advisor of elizabeth I -had blackmail on her
martin luther
-monk that writes 95 thesis
personalized style for drawing people that made them glow and float
Charles V
-Q. Isabella's grandson -holy roman emperor, ruled 1/4 of his reign on the road -fights the ottoman turks
-Florentine sculptor who added more dimension -"the titanic sculptor"
-FRESCOESss -starts to break out of stiff, byzantine look, but till 2d -spent all his money on blue
-prince of the humanists -dutch philosopher -HUGE author - super popular books
anne boleyn
henry viii's first mistress who wants to become queen so he gets annulment from his first wife (catherine of aragon)
mary queen of scots
rightful queen of Scotland, imprisoned by Elizabeth I
bloody mary (mary I)
queen of England who tries to bring back Catholicism, but dies shortly after coronation
elizabeth I
-Anne Boleyn and Henry viii's daughter -last house of tudor -fairly tolerant -declared illegitimate -no systematic persecutions
-prince of French poets -best at "Pleiades"
-writes divine comedy
pope leo X
-a medici, nearly bankrupts Vatican -this starts reformation bcs of indulgences
French diplomat who writes "the prince"
Spanish soldier, sonnet master
Italian author of "Jerusalem Reconquered"
-writes "institutes of Christian religion (major book of Calvinist doctrine) -he provides the stability that protestants need after luther dies -sole ruler of geneva
-French writer regarded as the originator of the modern essay -writes diaries -attempts opinions, thoughts, and a true autobiography