Biology Vocab - Chapter 7

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Active Transport
Energy requiring process by which substances move across the plasma membrane against a concentration gradient
Basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms
cell theory
State that (1) organisms are made of one or more cells; (2)cells are basic unit of life; (3)and all cells come only from other cells
Cell Wall
In plants, the rigid barrier that surrounds the outside of the plasma membrane, is made of cellulose, and provide support and protect to the cell.
Organelle that plays a role in cell division and is made of microtubules
Double-membrane organelle that captures light energy and converts it to chemical energy through photosynthesis
Short, hairlike projection that functions in cell movement
Semifluid material inside the cells plasma membrane
Supporting network of Protein fibers that provide a framework for the cell within the cytoplasm
Net movements of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
dynamic equilibrium
Condition of continuous, random movements of particle but no overall change in concentration of material
Energy-requiring process by which large substances from the outside environment can enter a cell
endoplasmic reticulum
Highly folded membrane system in eukaryotic cells that is the site for protein and lipid synthesis
eukaryotic cell
Unicellular organism with membrane-bound nuculeus and organelles; generally larger and more complex than a prokaryotic cells
Energy-requiring process by which a cell expels wastes and secretes substances at the plasma membrane
facilitated diffusion
Passive transportation of ions and small molecules across the plasma membrane by transport proteins
Long, tail-like projection with a whiplike motion that helps a cell move through a watery environment
Fluid Mosaic Model
A plasma membrane with components consistently in motion, sliding past one another within the lipid bilayer
Golgi Apparatus
Flattened stack of tubular membranes that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins into vesicles and transports them to other organelles or out of the cell
hypertonic solution
The concentration of the solute outside of the cell is higher than the Inside
hypotonic solution
A solution that has a lower concentration of solute outside then inside the cell, causing water to flow into the cell by osmosis
isotonic solution
A solution With the same concentration of water and solutes as inside a cell, resulting in the cell retaining its normal shape because there's no net movement of water
Vesicle that uses enzymes to digest excess or worn-out cellular substances
Membrane bound organelle that converts fuel into energy that is available to the rest of the cell
The site of ribosom production within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
Center of an atom; contains neutrons and protons. in eukaryotic cells, the central membrane-bound organelle that manages cellular functions and contains DNA
Specialized internal cell structure that carries out specific cell functions such as protein synthesis and energy transformation
Diffusion of water across a selectively premeable membrane
phospholipid bilayer
Plasma membrane layers composed of phospholipid molecules arranged with polar heads facing the outside of non-polar tails facing the inside
plasma membrane
Flexible, selectively premeable boundary that helps control what enters and leaves the cell
prokaryotic cell
Microscopic, unicellular organism without a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
Simple cell organelle that helps manufacture proteins
selective permeability
Property of the plasma membrane that allows it to control movement of substances Into or out of the cell
transport protein
Protein that moves substances or wastes through the plasma membrane
Membrane-bound vesicle for temporary storage of materials such as food, enzymes, and wastes