Biology test 3

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106 Terms
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the capacity of a cell to do work
Energy Cycle
Plants absorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy
Types of energy
Chemical, Light, Heat, Wind, Electrical , Nuclear
Potential Energy
Stored energy, glucose (C6H12O6) Capacity to do work
Used Energy, Energy of Motion
Food Molecules
Chemical bonds are potential energy, Glucose, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins
transfers energy
Redox Reaction
energy transfers in organisms, electron transport chains
Heat Energy in cells
Cells are too small to maintain a significant internal temperature
Heat Measurement
1 joule = .239 calories, kilocalories
the study of energy and its transformations
No energy is being made or destroyed
heat speeds up molecules creating disorder
the sum of all chemical reactions in a cell, makes energy available for cellular processes, putting together or breaking down
consume food to produce energy
photosynthesis to produce energy
Anabolic reactions
Building molecules, linking of amino acids to form proteins
Catabolic reactions
breaking down molecules, degradation of starch to monosaccharides
Delta G
Free energy left at the end of a reaction
Exergonic Reaction
Catabolic, Delta G<0, Spontaneous
Endergonic Reaction
Anabolic, Delta G>0
energy currency of cells, not stored well in cells (negative charges repel each other)
speed up reaction by lowering the activation energy, most are proteins
Activation Energy
energy needed to destabilize chemical bonds
reactant which binds to enzyme
end result or reaction
Active site
enzymes catalytic site, substrate fits into active site
Conezyme or Cofactor
assists the substrate in making the active site whole, vitamin
Co factor
metals, iron zinc
Enzyme optimal conditions
heat (98.6), pH
feedback inhibition
turn off the first enzyme in a metabolic pathway
Competitive Feedback inhibition
Active site become blocked off
Non-competitive (Allosteric) Feedback inhibition
molecule bonds to an enzyme and changes the shape of the active site
ATP losing a phosphate
Chemical Equation for Cellular Respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
1 Glucose
36-38 ATP
Stages of ATP
23 steps to inhibit combustion in cells, Heat is given off
Molecular cars to move electrons
strip hydrogen of protons and electrons
Electron Carriers
Soluble, membrane-bound
Two ways to Make ATP
Enzymes, Electron Transport
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
Adding a phosphate, Ancient, used in Glycolysis
oxidative phosphorylation
need oxygen to add phosphate
Simple organisms
re-attach phosphate with an enzyme
4 Steps of Cell respiration
Glycolysis, Pyruvate Oxidation to Acetyl CO-a, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport
Glycolysis (fermentation)
Occurs in cytoplasm 12 Steps No oxygen Main products - 2 ATP, 2 Pyruvates (3 Carbons), 2 NADH Yeast, Human Muscle cells
Pyruvate Oxidation to Acetyl Co-a
Occurs in the double membrane of the mitochondria Produces 2 Acetyle CO-a, 2 NADH, 2 CO2
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)
Occurs in the Matrix Turns twice for 1 Molecule of glucose Makes carries - 8 NADH, 2 FADH Acetyle Co-a -> Oxaloacetate Makes 2 ATP, 4 CO2 9 Reactions
Electron Transport (Chemiosmosis)
Occurs in Cristae ATP synthesis pump NADH and FADH can carry 2 electrons Concentration gradient of H+ 32-34 ATP
Aerobic respiration
Controlled by feedback inhibition Phosphofructokinase controls glycolysis
Deamination of Proteins
breaking into amino acids
Beta oxidation of Fats
fats are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol
Anaerobic respiration
Some living organism thrive NO Oxygen present Use inorganic molecules such as sulfur, nitrate, C02 or metals to transpire Archaea
Fermentation in Yeast
2 ATP, 2 Pyruvate (3Carbon), 2 NADH (enzymes) Uses ATP Reuse NADH Breaks Pyruvate into CO2 and Ethanol
Fermentation in Human Muscle Cells
2 ATP, 2 Pyruvate (3Carbon), 2 NADH (enzymes) Uses ATP Reuses NADH Breaks Pyruvate into Lactic acid
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Endergonic Takes place in chloroplast
Light Dependent Reaction
Splitting water and harvesting hydrogens Occurs in thylakoid Light energy is captured by chlorophyll Electrons come from H20 Endergonic
Calvin Cycle (Light Independent Reaction)
ATP is used to dismantle CO2 and put carbon into glucose Occurs in Stroma 6x = 1 Molecule of Glucose Ribisco
Jan Baptista van Helmont (1577-1644)
Where do plants get nutrients, Tree experiment
Joseph Priestly (1733-1804)
There is something in the air, mouse and candle experiment
Jan Ingenhouz (1730-1799)
Plants produce oxygen, Discoverer of photosynthesis
Jean Senebier (1742-1809)
Plants need CO2
Julius Mayer (1830-1895)
Plants transform energy
Julius von Sachs (1832-1897)
Starch is produced by light
FF Blackman (1866-1947)
Photosynthesis is a multistep process and one requires light
Cornelius Van niel (1897-1985)
Photosynthesis is a light dependent redox reaction
Melvin Calvin (1911-1997)
Traces the chemical path that carbon follow to form Glucose
Where does photosynthesis take place?
Chloroplasts located
allows gases to diffuse in and out, controlled by guard cells
A stack of thylakoids
Location of synthesis reaction
highly energized packets of light, kinetic light energy
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Differentiates light based on its wavelength Visible range is the wavelength we can see Radiowaves, Infrared, UV light, Xrays, Gamma Rays
Plant Pigments
Capture the light energy
Chlorophyll A
main pigment to absorb light
Chlorophyll B
helps chlorophyll A
Yellow and Orange
Anti oxidants
Beta Carotenes and other carotenoids neutralize free radicals
B Carotene
Vitamin A precursor
Why do leaves change color
Heat wave, Shorter Days
Photosystem 1 & 2
Enzymes with Antenna that Captures light, chlorophyll is located here
enzyme that bonds to CO2 in photosynthesis
sugar, product of calvin cycle
CO2 binds in Calvin Cycle
Closing of stomata, Build up of oxygen in the plant, no CO2 to make sugar
C3 Photosynthesis
Main photosynthesis, occurs in mesophyll
C4 Photosynthesis
Occurs in the bundle sheath cell, CO2 -> Malate, ex. sugarcane, corn
CAM photosynthesis
Stomata only open at night, CO2 -> Malate, ex. tropical fruits, cactus
Stomach enzyme, Acid, PH-2, Breaks down food
Enzyme in large intestine, Basic, PH-11, Absorbs nutrients
Final electron acceptor in cell respiration
Final electron acceptor in yeast
Final electron acceptor in human muscle cells
Visible Light
380-700 nanometers, chlorophyll will absorb blue and red, Green is reflected
Anoxygenic Photosynthesis
Does not produce Oxygen, Found in Purple bacteria, green sulfur bacteria, green non sulfur bacteria, heliobacteria
Oxygenic Photosynthesis
Produces oxygen, Found in cynobacteria, algae, all land plants
Ultraviolet radiation
Shortest wavelengths, high energy photons, causes sunburn and skin cancer
Infrared Radiation
longer wavelengths, converted immediately to heat
Absorption spectrum
the range and efficiency of photons it is capable of absorbing
The sun provides
13x10^23 Calories per year
Oxidation Cellular Respiration
Glucose - > 6 C02
Reduction Cellular respiration
6O2 -> 6 H20
C-H Bonds
potential energy stored in molecules
requires 2 electrons and a proton to become NADH
B6-F Complex
pumps protons into thylakoid space