Nerves PP Study Questions

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What are the 2 major categories of the nervous system?
The central and peripheral nervous systems
What system consists of the brain and spinal cord?
Which system comprises all nerves that extend outward from the brain and spinal cord?
Where do cranial nerves come out of and what do they serve?
Cranial nerves come out of the brain and serve the head and neck area
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
In how many directions fo neurons transmit a message?
What is a nerve?
A bundle of neurons
What are the 2 types of neurons?
Sensory and motor
Can nerves contain both sensory and motor neurons?
The brain and spinal cord are made up of _____ and ______.
Sensory and motor neurons
How does our bodies react to pain?
The pain is transmitted by a receptor that brings the message to the brain. The brain then interprets the pain and sends a motor message down the spinal cord which is then picked up by a peripheral nerve and sends it to the muscles that react to the pain
What chain are the brain and spinal cord part of?
The sensory chain
What are the 3 groups of the PNS?
Spinal nerves, cranial nerves and the autonomic nervous system
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
31 pairs: 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 coccygeal
What are distributed by region from the neck to the toes?
The spinal nerves
How many cranial nerves?
What roman numeral is the trigeminal nerve?
What does the trigeminal nerve innervate?
Muscles of mastication, man and max teeth, tissues and mucosal membranes of the head and TMJ
The trigeminal nerve bramches sereve as a ________ for autonmoic fibers
Distribution network
What is located in the skull by the temporal bone and has 3 nerves coming out of it?
Trigeminal ganglion
What are the other names of the trigeminal ganglion?
Semilunar and Gasserian ganglion
What are the 3 main trigeminal branches?
The opthalmic, maxillary and mandibular nerve
Where does the opthalmic branch exit?
The superior orbital fissure
What does the opthalmic divison innervate?
The orbit and anterior scalp
What are the three branches of the opthalmic nerve?
The frontal nerve, the lacrimal nerve, and the nasociliary nerve
What does the lacrimal nerve serve?
The lacrimal gland and upper eyelid
What does the nasociliary nerve serve?
The ethmoid cells, sphenoid sinus, anterior nasal cavity, upper eyelid and eye
What does the frontal nerve serve?
The skin of the forehead, scalp and frontal sinus mucosa
What are the 4 branches of the maxillary divison of the trigemnal nerve?
Zygomatic, PSA, Infraorbital and Pterygopalatine ganglion
Where does the maxillary nerve enter?
The pterygopalatine fossa
Where does the maxillary nerve exit?
The foramen rotundum
What does the zygomatic nerve supply?
The skin over the cheeks and temple
What does the zygomatic help innervate?
The lacrimal gland; tears
Where does the PSA enter?
Maxillary tuberosity
What does the PSA innervate/supply?
The ROOTS of MAX molars. Only the DB and LINGUAL root of the 1st molar though, the buccal gingiva and part of the maxillary sinus
What is the terminal branch of the maxillary nerve?
The infraorbital
What are the 2 branches of the infraorbital?
The MSA and ASA
What percent of time is the MSA present?
What does the MSA supply?
The MB root of the 1st premolar, premolar teeth and buccal gingiva
What does the MSA go thru?
maxillary sinus
What does the ASA supply?
The anterior maxillary teeth and labial gingiva
What does the ASA innervate?
The max ant teeth, gingiva and maxillary sinus
Why does the ASA get to the labial gingiva?
The alveolar bone is thin allowing some to pass thru and sneak out of the maxilla
Where does the infraorbital exit?
The infraorbital foramen under the eye
What does the infraorbital nerve innervate?
The mucosa of max lip, lower eye lid, sides of the nose and the maxillary facial gingiva
What ganglion is associated with the maxillary nerve?
The pterygopalatine ganglion
What are the 3 branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion?
descending palatine, sphenopalatine, and pharyngeal
What are the 2 branches of the descending palatine?
The greater and lesser palatine
What does the greater palatine innervate?
The hard palate, mucosa of the 2ndry palate, and palatal gingiva of the maxillary molar and premolars
What controls the secretion of minor salivary gland?
greater palatine
Where does the greater palatine enter?
Through the greater foramen
Where does the lesser palatine enter?
Through the lesser foramen
What does the lesser palatine innervate?
Soft palate
What does the sphenopalatine go thru?
The pterygopalatine foramen
What does the sphenopalatine innervate?
The nasal cavity
What is the branch of the sphenopalatine?
The nasopalatine
What does the nasopalatine serve?
Primary palate and lingual gingiva
What does the nasopalatine pass thru?
The incisive canal
What does the nasopalatine enter thru?
The incisive foramen
What brach is V3
Mandibular branch of trigeminal
What are the 2 divisions of the mandibular brach?
Anterior and posterior
Where does the mandibular branch exit?
The foramen ovale
What is a branch of the anterior divsion?
The long buccal nerve
What does the long buccal nerve serve?
The buccal gingiva of the mandibular molars up to the mental foramen
What is the buccal nerve a branch of?
The facial nerve (VII)
What does the anterior division innervate?
motor fibers to the muscles of mastication
What are the 4 branches of the posterior division of the mandibular nerve?
The auriculotemporal, lingual, inferior alveolar and mylohyoid
What are the 2 branches of the inferior alveolar nerve?
The mental and incisive
What does the auriculotemporal nerve supply sensory to?
The skin of the ear and temple
What does the lingual branch supply sensor to?
The anterior 2/3rds of the tongue and the floor of the mouth
What does the lingual nerve join with in order to taste?
The chorda tympani nerve
What do the chorda tympani and lingual nerve serve?
The tongue, floor of the mouth and lingual gingiva of mandibular teeth
Where does the inferior alveolar nerve first send a branch off too?
The mylohyoid
Then the inferior alveolar goes into the _________ and follows the _________to the ___________.
mandibular foramen, mandibular canal, mental foramen
Where does the mental nerve exit?
The mental foramen
What does the mental nerve supply?
The mucosa of the lip, labial gingiva in the ANT MAN area , skin of the chin and lower lip
What is the inferior alveolar that stays inside of the mandible?
The incisive branch
What does the incisive branch innervate?
Mandibular anterior teeth
What does the inferior alveolar supply?
ONLY the man posterior TEETH
What roman numeral is the facial nerve?
What neurons do the facial nerve include?
sensory and motor
What is the facial nerve attached to?
The medulla
What are the functions of the facial nerve?
secretion, taste, general sensation and motor
What does the facial nerve trunk exit?
The stylomastoid foramen
Where does the facial nerve pass thru?
The parotid gland
What does the facial nerve innervate?
Muscles of facical expression
What fibers are associated w the facial nerve?
efferent, special sensation, preganglionic parasympathetic, and general sensation
Which fibers are for muscles of facial skeleton, stylohyoid and posterior belly of the digastric muscle?
What fibers are for taste and the anterior two-thirds of the tongue except for the vallate papillae?
special sensation
What fibers are for the lacrimal, submandibular, and sublingual glands?
What fibers are for the skin of the ear?
The general sensation
What are the 2 important branches of the facial nerve before it exits the skull?
chorda tympani and greater petrosal
Which branch of the facial nerve travels through the middle ear and out of the skull to join with the lingual branch of V3?
chorda tympani
Together, what does the chorda tympani and lingual branch of V3 supply?
Taste to the ant 2/3 of the tongue
What does the chordatympani have fibers to?
The submandibular and sublingual glands
Which branch of the facial nerve carries parasympathetic innervation to the glands of the hard palate, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland?
The greater petrosal
What causes Bell's Palsy?
When one side of the facial nerve is not working
What roman numeral is the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Where does the glossopharyngeal exit?
Through the jugular foramen
What fibers are associated with the glosspharyngeal nerve?
efferent, special sensory, preganglionic parasympathetic, and general sensory
What fibers are for the stylopharyngeus muscle?
What fibers are for the posteior 1/3 of the tongue?
special sensory
what fibers are for the parotid gland secretion?
preganglionic parasympathetic
What fibers are for the posterior one-third of tongue, pharynx, tonsillar region, common carotid artery?
General sensory
A small, scattered motor nucleus found in the medulla:
nucleus ambiguus
What is the 1 branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Lesser Petrosal Nerve
The lesser petrosal goes to the parotid gland and provides parasympathetic innervation to the __________.
Parotid gland
What roman numeral is the hypoglossal nerve?
Where does the hypoglossal nerve exit?
hypoglossal canal in the occipital bone
What does the hypoglossal innervate?
infrahyoid muscles