Child Development Exam 3

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141 Terms
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Beliefs, values, memories, relationships, and experiences that define who we are; considered to be fluid.
Minority Identity
More likely to draw attention.
Concept of "Me"
(develops at 2 years) Mirror self-recognition Pronouns Visual perspective Possessiveness Name
Autobiographical Memory
Coherent set of memories about ones life.
Industry v. Inferiority
Child desires to prove their ability to perform tasks.
Social Comparison
Comparing oneself to others; helps to more realistically consider other perspectives.
Identity v. Role Confusion
Figuring out what you want to be/become.
Defining self in multiple ways and thinking abstractly.
Marcia's Identity Status
The process by which crisis and commitment leads to identity development.
Identity Diffusion
Lack of commitment and crisis.
Identity Foreclosure
Firm commitment with lack of question/crisis.
Identity Moratorium
Active exploration of an identity with little commitment.
Identity Acheivement
Readiness to commit to an identity after active exploration.
Rite of Passage
Formal, socially constructed ritual to signify identity development, "coming-of-age".
Trends in Self-Esteem
High in preschool years but declines throughout development Higher in men Good to be high, but not in excess Promoted through process-based praise Inhibited by too much social entertainment
Thin Ideal
Unrealistic portrayal of thinness for women.
Muscular Ideal
Unrealistic portrayal of muscularity for men.
Impression Management
Controlling others perceptions.
Gender Identity
your identity as it is experienced with regard to your individuality as male or female, developed as early as 2 years old.
Gender Stability
Convinced that certain toys, clothes, and hairstyles are appropriate for girls or boys, developed by age 4-5.
Gender Constancy
Increased awareness of sex/gender differences, age 5-7. Thought to be permanent by age 8.
Biological differences.
Socialized differences based on roles and behaviors that are reinforced.
Gender Expression
How you present your gender.
Umbrella term for differences in sex traits.
Identifying as same sex assigned at birth.
Refers to the many ways gender identity can differ from sex assigned at birth.
Gender Non-Conforming
Don't assign to any particular gender identity.
Gender Fluidity
Gender is more fluid than dichotomous.
Queer Attraction Model
Awareness Exploration Deepening Commitment Internalization
Human Rights Campaign
2017 survey across LGBTQ teens in U.S. that reported higher levels of stress, anxiety, rejection, and insecurity.
Gender consistent with whichever behavior is reinforced.
Social Cognitive Theory
Children imitate gender constant behaviors that they are exposed to.
Striving for affirmation from peers.
Evolutionary Theory
Males and females pursue attractiveness in gendered manners.
Racial Socialization
Process of teaching and preparing children about discrimination they may experience.
Effects of Racism
Stereotypes Prejudice Discrimination Institutional racism Microaggressions
Counter Programming
Rewriting the narrative of gender/racial stereotypes.
Dr. Clark's Classic Doll Experiment
Black children preferred playing with a white doll.
Discrimination based upon skin tone.
Phinney's Stages of Racial Identity
Diffused racial identity Racial identity foreclosure Moratorium Achieved racial identity
Ethnic/Racial Identity
Knowledge and attitudes about the ethnic/racial group belonged to.
Ethnic/Racial Constancy
Understanding ethnicity/race to be consistent across time and setting.
Moral Judgement
How we reason moral issues/draw conclusions. Influenced by many aspects, emotional and social maturity is foundational.
Prosocial Behavior
Extending helpfulness without personal benefit, from having empathy and sympathy.
Antisocial Behavior
Hurts others deliberately, aggression in childhood is a red flag.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Pre-conventional Conventional Post-conventional
Moral Knowledge
Basic understanding of right and wrong.
Piaget's Stages of Morality
Pre-moral Heteronomous morality Immanent judgement Autonomous morality
Discovery Learning
Children allowed to discover information and understanding for themself.
Guided Play
Children learn in a prepared environment where adults can scaffold learning.
Universal Design
Environment that caters to children with all levels of developmental capabilities.
Make-Believe Play
Strengthens the ability to control impulses and understand social interactions.
Characteristics of Play
Voluntary/spontaneous For enjoyment Active engagement Nonliteral
Play Therapy
Uses play as a form of communicating/triangulating so that children can open up about feelings.
Types of Physical Play
Physical activity Rhythmic stereotypes Exercise Rough-and-tumble
Parten's 6 Levels of Play
Unoccupied Onlooker Solitary Parallel Associative Cooperative
Rejected by peers due to aggression.
Rejected by peers due to social anxiety
Rejection Sensitivity
How sensitive a child is to rejection.
An exclusive circle of adolescents with a common purpose.
Larger group of adolescents with something in common, but aren't necessarily friends.
Peer Pressure
Encouragement to conform; becomes negative when it defies authority.
Teens adopt a more homogenous group; selecting those who share values and abandoning those who don't.
Social Competance
"Soft skills", vital for success and linked to prosocial behavior/emotional and relational health.
Parasocial Romantic Relationships
One-sided relationships in which one person is idolized.
Enabling behaviors that would unlikely have happened on their own.
Deviancy Training
Destructive peer support that influences rebellion against authority.
Popular Bully
Uses advanced social intelligence to manipulate peer group and achieve dominance.
Unpopular Bully
Lower levels of social intelligence; attacks and abuses others as a response.
Characteristics of a Bullying Victim
Unaccepted Anxious/solitary/vulnerable Social rival Minority Internalizing behaviors
Bullying Circle
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Systemic Intervention
Clear rules enforced and support offered to victims; more effective than zero-tolerance policy.
Bystander Effect
Refusal to defend a victim or denounce bullying publicly.
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE)
Developmental disruptions that have lifelong consequences. Prevention includes: Economic support Promotion of positive social norms Ensuring strong start Teaching skills Connecting with caring adults/positive activities
Group of related peoples (definition is very fluid).
Nuclear Family
Husband, wife, and children.
Extended Family
Family consisting of the nuclear family and their blood relatives
Shared Environment
Influence that diminishes with age (family).
Non-Shared Environment
Influence that expands with age (friends/school).
Family Structure
Family type based upon the constellation of family.
Supports Success in Single Parent Household
Financial stability Emotional stability Father involvement Parents on good terms Stress management Outside support
Shares responsibilities, promotes time spent with child, and encourages connectedness.
Open Adoption
Child and birth parents and still in contact.
Semi-Open/Mediated Adoption
Open and informed, but not overly-involved.
Temporary living arrangement with another family or relative. Inability to build foundation in a consistent environment leads to poor outcomes.
Family Function
The way a family works to meet each member's needs; function is more important than form.
Children's Needs
Physical necessities Learning Self-respect Peer relationships Harmony/stability Safety, love, and belonging
Highly variable, most significant influence in child's life.
Inductive Discipline
Sets clear limits, consequences, and expectations for behavior.
Command Strategy
Parents express authority with no explanation.
Mutually Responsive Orientation
Both parent and child cooperate in an emotionally positive relationship.
Psychological Control
Manipulating a child to comply.
Power Assertion
Exerting superiority/power in order to acheive child's compliance.
Baumrind's Parenting Style Dimensions
Expression of warmth Strategies of discipline Communication Expectations for maturity
Authoritative Parenting
High control, high warmth :)
Authoritarian Parenting
High control, low warmth :/
Permissive Parenting
Low control, high warmth :/
Disengaged Parenting
Low control, low warmth :(
Expression of warmth from parent.
Amount of control parent holds.
Three-Way Interaction of Parental Influence
Child's temperament Parent's personality Social context
Child Maltreatment
Intentional harm/endangerment of child.
Child Abuse
The deliberate physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment of children.
Child Neglect
Failure of caretakers to provide adequate emotional and physical care for a child.
Consequences of Maltreatment
Regard people as hostile Aggressive, isolated, and less friendly Greater social deficits Economic consequences
Richo's 5 A's of Love
Attention Affection Appreciation Acceptance Allowing
Governmental Family Intervention
Policies concerned with economic security, childcare, education, and health care.
Community Family Intervention
Strengthens families with community-wide interventions and prevention programs.
Individual Family Intervention
Programs that offer prevention or interventions targeted for individual families.
Unstructured Time
Child's opportunity for independence and leisure in schedule, beneficial for self-motivation. Must be given freedom, yet somewhat monitored.
Positive Prgramming
Encourages prosocial behavior such as helping, sharing, and cooperation, as well as empathetic concern for others and less aggression.
Displacement Hypothesis
Media pulls kids away from other productive activities.
Media Literacy
Understanding of the purposes of media presentations in order to reduce risks. It is the responsibility of the parent to act as a role model.
YDI's Positive Youth Development Goals
Activities that benefit development of teens and other youths.
The Five C's
Competence Confidence Connection Compassion Character (Contribution)
Paid Work
Not considered a PYD goal but depends on the child's socioeconomic status.
Positive Sandwich
Surrounding a correction with a preceding and an ending encouragement.
Normative Stress
Common, pressure that is not overwhelming.
Non-Normative Stress
Less common, higher intensity situations, temporarily overwhelming.
Toxic Stress
Damaging, strong, frequent, and prolonged activation of the stress response.
Psychosomatic Symptons
Physiological response from psychological stress.
Phase Delay
Experienced by teens, tendency to want to both fall asleep and wake up two hours later than usual.
Stress hormone that triggers fight or flight response.
Problem-Focused Strategies
Designed to change the situation in order to reduce stress.
Emotion-Focused Strategies
Designed to reduce emotional distress.
Severity of Children's Stress
Usually underestimated by parent.
Environmental Toxins
Children are more vulnerable due to their level of intake and process of development.
Most common chronic illness found in children.
Most common cause of disease-related death among children.
Most commonly used illicit drug by teens.
Most commonly used drug by teens, the earlier it is used, the poorer the outcomes.
Housing Instability
Being without an assured shelter; chronic, transitional, or episodic.
Response to a deeply distressing event.
Best Approach to Treating Trauma
Prevention and early detenction/intervention.
Mandatory Reporters
Professionals who work with children/families that are required to report their suspicions.
Child Protective Services
Intended to balance the need to protect the child with the preservation of the family.
No one is born with it!
Process of adapting well in the face of adversity.
Most Common Factor of Resilience Development
Having at least one stable and committed parent-figure.
Key Capacities
Ability to plan, monitor, and regulate behavior.