AP Bio - Unit 4

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What is an example of a prokaryote?
Plants and Animals
What are the two main categories of eukaryotes?
DNA, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane
What four features do all cells share?
No nucleus, unbound DNA in a nucleoid, No membrane-bound organelles, has a Wall and Capsule
What are characteristics of a prokaryotic cell?
Metabolic Requirements
What limits a cell's size?
Do small cells have a higher or lower SA:V ratio than larger cells?
Which size of cell is more efficient at moving nutrients throughout them?
Which size of cell has a better rate of heat exchange with the environment?
Surface Area and Volume
What are SA and V in the SA:V ratio?
Chloroplast, Cell Wall, Central Vacuole
What are three components of a plant cell that cannot be found in an animal cell?
What does a nucleus contain?
What organelle is found in all forms of life and reflects common ancestry?
mRNA and protein
Ribosomes are complexes of what two things?
Protein Synthesis
What process do ribosomes carry out?
Linear strands found in pairs
What do chromosomes look like? (Just try to get a close answer)
One DNA molecule and protein
What are chromosomes made up of?
What is another name for cytoplasm?
A selective barrier that regulates passage of materials
What is the plasma membrane?
What makes up plasma membranes?
Oxygen, Nutrients, and Waste
What substances do plasma membranes regulate in and out?
On the rough ER and free-floating in cytoplasm
Where are the two locations ribosomes are found in a cell?
Nuclear Lamina (proteins)
What determines the shape of a nucleus?
What is it called when DNA and chromosome proteins come together?
Where does ribosomal RNA synthesis take place?
They stay in the cell
Where do proteins made by ribosomes in cytoplasm go?
They leave the cell or go to the membrane
Where do proteins made by ribosomes on the rough ER go?
Nuclear Envelope, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Vacuoles and Plasma Membrane
What makes up the Endomembrane System?
Ribosomes, Chloroplast, and Mitochondria
What are three important organelles not found in the Endomembrane System?
Regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions
What does the endomembrane system do?
What main feature differentiates rough ER from smooth ER?
Which ER has ribosomes?
Endoplasmic Reticulum
What does the ER stand for?
Synthesizes lipids and Carbohydrate Metabolism
What are the two main functions of the smooth ER?
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
What organelle contributes to over half of the total membrane in eukaryotes?
Distributes transport vesicles
What is the main functions of the rough ER?
Folds and chemically modifies newly-made proteins from the rough ER and packages them for protein transport
What does the Golgi Apparatus do?
Digest macromolecules, Recycle organic materials, and plays a role in cell death
What are the main functions of Lysosomes?
What's another name for Lysosome?
Hydrolytic Enzymes
What do lysosomes contain?
Animal (Eukaryotic) Cells, most specifically: White Blood Cells
What type of cell has a lot of lysosomes?
storing and releasing macromolecules and cellular waste products
What are the main functions of vacuoles?
Plant cells
What type of cells have specialized vacuoles to hold organic compounds and water (for turgor pressure)?
The endomembrane system is a complex and dynamic player in the cell's _____________ organization?
What is the powerhouse of the cell😋 ?
Cellular Respiration
What process takes place in the Mitochondria?
What process takes place in the Chloroplast?
The belief that the mitochondria and the chloroplast were once independent (prokaryotic) cells that were enveloped by eukaryotic cells
What is the endosymbiont theory? (endosymbiosis)
They're both enveloped by a double membrane, they each contain their own ribosomes, they have their own DNA, and can essentially grow and reproduce independently in cells
What are three pieces of evidence to support the endosymbiont theory?
Mitchondria had smooth outer membranes and an inner membrane folded called what?
Mitochondria and Chloroplast
What two organelles are not part of the endomembrane system but can still compartmentalize reactions?
ATP (Energy)
When more reactions occur in the Mitochondria occur more of what is produced?
What is the pigment found in chloroplasts called?
Green organs of photosynthetic plants and algae
Chloroplasts are found in leaves and what else?
Chloroplasts are made of those pancake stacks what are each individual "pancake"/disc called?
Chloroplasts are made of those pancake stacks what are the stacks of "pancakes"/Thylakoids called?
What is the fluid found inside Chloroplasts called?
What is the fluid found inside of the Mitochondria called?
What is the network of fibers that supports the cell and maintains its shape called?
Cilia or Flagella
What are the two names for the structures responsible for cell movement called?
Cell Wall
What extracellular structure distinguishes plant cells from animal cells?
Cellulose fibers
What is the cell wall made up of?
Nuclear Envelope
What surrounds the nucleus? (Hint: it's two words and one of them is literally "nuclear")
Lysosomes and Vacuoles
What two organelles are membranous sacs?