Chapter 3

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the sharing of power between the national government and the states.
unitary system
a system where the central government has all of the power over subnational governments.
confederal system
a system where the subnational governments have most of the power.
federal system
a system where power is divided between the national and state governments.
expressed or enumerated powers
authority specifically granted to a branch of the government in the Constitution.
exclusive powers
powers only the national government may exercise.
implied powers
authority of the federal government that goes beyond its expressed powers; powers not granted specifically to the national gover­ nment but considered necessary to carry out the enumerated powers.
commerce clause
grants Congress the authority to regulate interstate business and commercial activity.
necessary and proper or elastic clause
language in Article I, Section 8, granting Congress the powers necessary to carry out its enumerated powers.
supremacy clause
constitutional provision declaring that the Constitu­ tion and all national laws and treaties are the supreme law of the land.
Tenth Amendment
reserves powers not delegated to the national government to the states and the people; the basis of federalism.
reserved powers
powers not given to the national government, which are retained by the states and the people.
concurrent powers
powers granted to both states and the federal government in the Constitution.
full faith and credit clause
constitutional clause requiring states to recognize the public acts, records, and civil court proceedings from another state.
the requirement that officials in one state return a defendant to another state where the crime was committed.
privileges and immunities clause
prevents states from discrimina­ ting against people from out of state.
Thirteenth Amendment
constitutional amendment that outlaws slavery.
Fourteenth Amendment
constitutional amendment asserting that persons born in the United States are citizens and prohibits states from denying persons due process or equal protection under the law.
dual federalism
a form of American federalism in which the states and the national government operate independently in their own areas of public policy.
selective incorporation
the process through which the Supreme Court applies fundamental rights in the Bill of Rights to the states on a case­by­case basis.
cooperative federalism
a form of American federalism in which the states and the national government work together to shape public policy.
federal money provided to states to implement public policy objectives.
fiscal federalism
the federal government’s use of grants­in­aid to influence policies in the states.
categorical grants
grants­in­aid provided to states with specific provisions on their use.
unfunded mandate
federal requirement the states must follow without being provided with funding.
block grant
a type of grants­in­aid that gives state officials more authority in the disbursement of federal funds.
revenue sharing
when the federal government apportions tax money to the states with no strings attached.
returning more authority to state or local governments.