BIO 208 - Final Exam

0.0(0) Reviews
Report Flashcard set

Spaced Repetition

Scientifically backed study method

spaced repetition


Review terms and definitions



Study with MC, T/F, and other questions


Practice Test

Take a test on your terms and definitions



219 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (219)
studying the structures of an organism
studying the functions of structures within an organism
the body's stable state, control mechanisms consist of a receptor, control mechanism, and effector
integumentary system
skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands; protects tissues, regulates body temperature, houses sensory receptors, synthesizes substances
skeletal system
bones, ligaments, cartilage; provides framework, protection, & an attachment point for muscles, produces blood cells and stores inorganic salts
muscular system
skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle; moves body parts, maintains posture, produces body heat
nervous system
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs; receives/interprets sensory receptor signals, causes muscles & glands to respond appropriately
endocrine system
pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, thymus; helps regulate metabolism, secrete hormones & target tissue response
cardiovascular system
heart, blood vessels; heart pumps blood to/from body parts, allows oxygen transport
lymphatic system
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen; transports lymph from tissue space to bloodstream, carries fatty substances away from digestive organs
digestive system
mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine; receives food, breaks down nutrients so they can pass through membranes, eliminates unabsorbed materials
respiratory system
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs; takes in/releases air, exchanges gas between blood & air
urinary system
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra; filters waste from blood, helps maintain fluid/electrolyte balance
reproductive system
enables organisms to produce offspring; male: scrotum, testes, seminal vesicles, etc.; female: ovaries, uterus, vagina, etc.
negative feedback
prevents sudden, severe changes in the body & corrects the set point, causes the opposite of bodily disruption to occur (eg. body temp, blood pressure, glucose regulation)
positive feedback
increases actions of the body, is short-lived, does not require continuous adjustments (eg. blood clotting, birth)
anatomical position
standing erect, facing forward, upper limbs at sides, palms facing forward, thumbs out laterally
toward the head
away from the head
toward the front of the body
toward the back of the body
close to the midline of the bodyl
away from the midline of the body
nearer to the point of attachment of a limb
away from the point of attachment of a limb
close to the surface of the skin
away from the surface of the skin
within the body
outside of the body
occuring on the same side of the body
occurring on opposite sides of the body
sagittal plane
plane that divides the body into left & right portions
midsagittal plane
divides the body into equal left & right portions
transverse plane
divides the body into superior & inferior portions
frontal plane
divides the body into anterior & posterior portions
cell theory
- all living organisms are composed of one or more cells - cells are the smallest unit of life - cells can only come from pre-existing cells via cell division
inner scaffolding of cell, gives animal cells shape & support
the genetic control center of the cell, stores hereditary information
contains the genetic material of the cell and becomes a chromosome
where ribosomes are made, is inside the nucleus, is bigger in cells with active gene transcription
the energy converters of the cell
mitochondria may have existed as separate single celled bacteria-esque organisms billions of years ago
the "garbage disposals" of the cells; round, membrane-enclosed, acid-filled vesicles that function as waste removal functions of the cells
small clusters within the cell that translate genetic messages in protein synthesis
rough ER
endoplasmic reticulum that modifies proteins to be shipped elsewhere in the organism
smooth ER
endoplasmic reticulum that synthesizes lipids and detoxifies molecules like alcohol, drugs, and metabolic waste
golgi bodies
the "mailroom" of the cell, receive proteins & package them, distribute them to other parts of the cell & release them outside of the cell
function to catalyze reactions that break down molecules by removing hydrogen or adding oxygen
movement of substances from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration
movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from regions of higher concentration to lower concentration
cell membrane
the ____ ________ is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and several different types of transport proteins
all the chemical reactions that take place within an organism
when larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones, energy is released
when larger molecules are synthesized from smaller ones, requires energy input
controls the rate of metabolic reactions, lowers activation energy to start reactions
adenosine triphosphate, form of energy with 3 phosphates
adenosine diphosphate, form of energy with 2 phosphates
cellular respiration
the harvesting of energy from food, 3 stages: glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
begins with a single molecule of glucose, results in 2 NADH & 2 ATP; produces 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (derivatives of glucose)
citric acid cycle
yields a maximum of 32 ATP
electron transport chain
ETC, a series of molecules located within the mitochondrial inner membrane, drives ATP synthase to produce ATP
lactic acid
is produced in humans when glycolysis is used in anaerobic conditions
is produced in yeast when glycolysis is used in anaerobic conditions
32 ATP
how many ATP are produced by cellular respiration?
4 DNA bases
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
sugar-phosphate backbone
what makes up the sides of the DNA molecule?
what percent of your DNA differs from other people?
what percent of the genome doesn't code for anything?
a unit of heredity that is passed down from parent to offspring
the letters that contribute to a person's phenotype (eg. AA, Aa, or aa)
the expression of a genotype (eg. brown eyes, blue eyes, hazel eyes)
first step of DNA synthesis, the DNA is read and a single copy is created to be translated to a protein
the information carried by mRNA is read, ingredients in cytoplasm are used to create proteins based on that instruction
changes in DNA that tend to be disruptive but can be useful and necessary for evolution to take place
epithelial tissue
tissue that covers organs & body surface, lines cavities and hollow organs (eg. simple columnar & pseudostratified columnar)
connective tissue
most abundant type of tissue, provides support & protection, binds structures, serves as frameworks, fills spaces/stores fat, protects against infection, etc (eg. dense regular, cartilage)
muscle tissue
contains muscle fibers, is contractile, consists of skeletal, smooth, & cardiac muscle (eg. skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle)
nervous tissue
tissue found in brain, spinal cord, & nerves (eg. nerve cells)
stratified squamous
which type of epithelial tissue is the skin?
when something is ___________, it means that the tissue contains keratin, is typically found on the skin
simple columnar
what kind of epithelial tissue lines the gut?
simple gland
a gland that has only one extension, can contain branches from that one extension
compound gland
a gland that has several extensions off a main branch
what type of cells make collagen and elastic fibers?
skin functions
- protection from drying the body out/friction - protection from foreign organisms - maintains body temperature - excretes salt/sweat - produces vitamin D - contains sensory (touch) receptors
layer of the skin that grows continuously from the basal layer upwards; skin cells die as they move upward away from the growth site
layer of skin that contains blood vessels & collagen/elastic fibers
layer of the skin that mainly consists of fat
cells that produce melanin and replicate slower than other skin cells, are scattered among basal cells
pigment that produces darker hair colors (brown/black)
pigment that produces lighter hair colors (red, blonde)
sebacous glands
glands that secrete oily sebum and are associated with hair
sweat glands
glands that secrete a watery fluid mix to help expend heat on the surface of the skin
skeletal system
- support, movement, & protection of the body & internal organs - promotes the formation of blood cells - stores inorganic salts what system is this?
long bone
a bone that has a shaft, 2 ends, and is longer than it is wide
short bone
a bone that is shaped roughly as a cube and contains mostly spongy bone
flat bone
a bone made up of a layer of spongy bone between two layers of compact bone
irregular bone
the bone type that can vary in shape and structure, therefore not fitting into any other category
epiphyseal plate
the main site of longitudinal growth of long bones, seals after puberty begins
bone marrow
the part of the bone that manufactures bone stem cells and blood cells
which bone cells lay down new bone during skeletal development and remodeling?
which bone cells are responsible for the reabsorption of bone?
which bone cells trap themselves within the bone matrix and serve to transport nutrients & waste?
intramembranous ossification
bones that originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissue, are broad, flat bones
endochondral ossification
bones that originate as hyaline cartilage, form models for future bones and are most abundant in the skeleton
hyaline cartilage
what type of cartilage coats the ends of bones?
how many bones does an adult human have?
axial skeleton
the skeleton made up of the bones in the core of the body (skull, vertebrae, sacrum, tailbone, sternum, ribs)
appendicular skeleton
the skeleton made up of the bones in the appendages (upper & lower extremities, shoulder girdle & pelvis)
soft spots on an infant skull that solidify with age, are intended to make birthing easier for the mother
cervical vertebrae
C1-C7, are the first 7 vertebrae of the spine
thoracic vertebrae
T1-T12, are the next 12 vertebrae of the spine
lumbar vertebrae
L1-L5, are the last 5 vertebrae of the spine
S1-S5, lower fused portion of the spinec
Co1-Co5, the lowest fused section of the vertebrae
true ribs
7 pairs, are the first ribs and directly articulate with the sternum
false ribs
lower 5 pairs, ribs that do not articulate directly with the sternum
floating ribs
the most inferior 2 pairs of ribs, have no ventral connection at all
pectoral girdle
made up of clavicle, scapula, & shoulder blade
pelvic girdle
fused bones in the pelvis; ilium, ischium, & pubis
process that causes bones to become weaker and break more easily
synovial joint
a joint between 2 bones where smooth cartilage exists, synovial fluid sits between to prevent friction and promote smooth movement
a small fluid-filled sac that reduces friction between moving parts in your body's joints
ball-and-socket joint
what type of joint is the shoulder joint?
hinge joint
what type of joint is the elbow?
moving a body part away from the bodya
moving a body part toward the body
turning the palm upward (like to hold a bowl of soup)
turning the palm downward
reducing the angle of the joint
increasing the angle at a joint
connects muscle to bone
connect bone to bone
the thin sheath of connective tissue that helps connect your muscles to your bones
epimysium, perimysium, endomysium
what are the 3 connective tissue coverings of muscles?
repeating bands of the proteins actin and myosin that are present along the length of myofibrils cause skeletal muscles to appear _______
the fundamental repeat unit within muscle that is responsible for contraction; consists of myosin and actin
actin & myosin
what are the 2 proteins responsible for muscle contraction?
a muscle that assists the prime mover in producing a movement along a jointa
a muscle that opposes movement at a joint, eg. triceps & biceps
motor unit
the combination of an individual motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
neuromuscular junction
a synaptic connection between the terminal end of a motor nerve and a muscle, releases ach from synaptic vesicles
rigor mortis
stiffening of the joints and muscles of a body a few hours after death, usually lasting from one to four days, is the depletion of ATP stores in the muscles
creatine phosphate
used in muscle cells for fast, sprinting motion/explosive exercise