BSC 111: Chapter 20, 21, 23, 25 Definitions and Key Concepts

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noncellular parasitic agent consisting of outer capsid and innercore of nucleic acid
Obligate Intracellular Pathogens
replicate using the metabolic machinery of host cells
Outer layer of a virus
protein capsid contains genetic material that will attach to a host cell through tissue specificity, lock and key fit, or target immune response
Outer Membranous envelope
outer layer of a virus is derived from the host cell's plasma membrane
Attachment Step(Lytic Cycle )
virus gains based on proteins on a cell and virus (must match) within the cells of specific living Organisms -> determined by the structure of proteins in the naked capsid in the spikes of an enveloped virus
Penetration step (Lytic Cycle)
host cell engulfs virus or injects genome into cell
biosynthesis step (lytic cycle)
viral component synthesized using host cell
Released step(Lytic Cycle)
new viruses exit the host cell through lysis or budding to infect new host cells
Lysogenic Cycle
After penetration, bacterial cell is integrated into bacterial DNA and is passed on when bacteria reproduce. Causes the bacteria to go dormant and will be activited with the chnages in the enviroment
lytic cycle starts immediately
in animal viruses reproduction:
Seasonal FLu (RNA Virus)
-Influenza A-virus: host changes, caused epidhous -Influenza B and C: only in humans Rapid mutation rate
Retrovirus: Animal viruses with an RNA genome that is converted into DNA within the host cell by reverse transcriptase ->AIDS ->Human Immuno Deficiency
Emerging Viruses
Outbreak of previously unknown disease or known disease that increase in occurrence -Mutated from existing RNA -Expanded host range -Antigenic shift -vector born
Viral Diseases in Plants
-Can occur due to varroids > 10,000 known viruses
RNA with no capsid
misfolded proteins that can transmit their misfolded shape onto variants of the same protein
Fatal Neurovegetative Brain Disease
TSEs(transmissible spongiform encephalopathies) caused by prions -Scrapie -Chronic Waste Disease -Kuru -Mad Cow Disease
single celled, lacks membrane bound nucleus and the membranous organelles typical of eukaryotes -> Evolved 3.5 BYA
Cell Wall
Provides support and shapes to a prokaryote cell
Capsule(Slime Layer)
helps parasitic bacteria protect itself from host cell defenses
hairlike bristles that allow adhesion to surfaces
rotating filament that propels the cell
Conjunction Pilus
elongated, hollow appendage used to transfer DNA to other cells
site of protein synthesis (smaller than eukaryotes)
single chromosome containing a few thousand genes that codes proteins
accessory rings that contain genes for antibiotic resistance
Binary Fission
Prokaryote reproduction where the cell splits and genetically identical sister cells -allows rapid population growth because every individual our reproduce - disadvantage: less genetic variation
Source of genetic variation where prokaryotes can absorb and express genetic material from environment
source of genetic variation where the process of transferring genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage
source of genetic variation where genetic material transmitted by plasmids -Cells connect by conjugation pilus -donor cell passes DNA to recipient in the form of a plasmid
Composition of Domain bacterial cell walls
indicates that a bacteria has a thin peptidoglycan wall and a extra LPS membrane layer
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rod shaped
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of or relating to organisms that can make complex organic nutritive compounds from simple inorganic sources by photosynthesis
requiring organic compounds of carbon and nitrogen for nourishment
Bacterial Photoautotrophs
photosynthetic bacteria
Facultative anaerobes
bacteria is able to growing either the presence of absence of gaseous oxygen
bacteria that carry out chemosynthesis -oxidize compounds to obtain the necessary energy to reproduce CO2 to an organic compound
bacteria that obtain carbon and energy in the form of organic nutrients produced by other living things
Symbiotic relationship
close relationship between two different species
Mutualistic Symbiosis
both species benefit from the association
Parasitic Symbiosis
one species benefit, the other is harmed
Commensalism symbiosis
one species benefits whereas the other is unaffeced
formed by pathogens within a cell wall a copy of chromosome and cytoplasm shriveled into a dormant state, are encased by a heavy coat
treatment that targets prokaryotes cell wall production in humans
Gram-negative bacteria that photosynthesize-> produces oxygen Contains chlorophyll Common in fresh and marine waters, soil, and on moist surfaces Form lichens that can grow on rocks
Roles of Bacteria
Producers: Responsible for the oxygen revolution An important part of marine phytoplankton (food and oxygen production)
Domain Archaea
bacterial cells with pseudopeptidoglycan cell walls Extremophiles: live in conditions of acidity, pressure, temp, salinity that would kill most other cells
Extreme Halophiles
archaea that live in extreme salt conditions
extreme thermoacidophiles
archaea that thrive in hot acidic environment
archaea that generate methane -> exist in swamps and animal intestinal tracts
eukaryotes that are not animals, fungi, or plants Single-celled, but some exist as colonies of cells or are multicellular
Endosymbiotic theory
proposes that eukaryotic cells acquired mitochondria and plastics(including chloroplasts) by engulfing a free-living bacterium that developed a symbiotic relationship within the host cell -Mitochondria derived first from the endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium
protists will reproduce asexually by
protists reproduce how when environmental conditions are unfit
protist parasite causing serious disease
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Single celled phototrophs important component phytoplankton Cellulose plates surround two flagella Causes Algae blooms: population explosion cause tides -water turns red or brown due to pigments
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protist that causes malaria performs antigen switching
inside the insect vector
the sexual stage of plasmodium occurs
in human blood cells
the asexual stage of plasmodium occurs
A type of algae Single-celled phototrophs Part of phytoplankton as a source of oxygen and food in aquatic ecosystems
Diamtaxous earth
fossilized diatoms used in abrasives
brown algae
true algae -Multicellular phototrophic -Kelp -Homoplastic with plants due to convergent evolution
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fungus like protists water molds with a filamentous body, chitin cell walls instead of cellulose
-parasite Used pseudopods to ingest cells-> uses a temporary arm like projection of a cell to move organisms Acquired through contained water and soil Causes amoebic dysentery
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Slime molds
Important decomposer of dead plant material, fungi, and bacterial Reduce spores but homoplasy with fungi is due to convergent evolution Amoeboid movement using cytoplasmic streaming
red algae
Multicellular photoautotrophs (seaweed) Red and blue accessory pigments in addition to photosynthetic chlorophyll Pigments allow for us of the wavelength of light present in deep water
green algae
algae Phototrophs Most are multicellular, but some are unicellular Contain chlorophyll, scratch, and a cell wall with cellulose Charophytes: first closet relatives to modern land plants
photosynthetic organisms in freshwater habitats that re most closely related to land plants Transition between protist and landplants
the vast majority of green algae are
green plants (virdiplantae)
green algae + land plants
-water cuticle -stromata -Vascularity
Land Plant adaptions to water loss
pores in land plants that open and close to regular water and gas exchange
vascular tissue
tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body in higher plants
long tubular cell peculiar to xylem, conduct water upward from roots
An adaption land plants made through pigments that absorb UV rays
Dominate diploid generation
Shift to this minimizes the effect of genetic mutation in plants due to UV rays by having two copies of the same gene
Haplodiplontic life cycle
multicellular haploid and diploid life stages
alternation of generations
a life cycle that alternates between two distinct multicellular haploid and diploid stages
Haploid (n)
cell condition in which only one of each type of chromosome is present,
gametophyte generation
haploid generation of the alternation of generations that produces gametes that unite to form a diploid zygote ->al spores divide by mitosis to produce the gametophyte -> produces gametes by mitosis
Diploid (2n)
cell condition in whcih two of each type of of chromosome are present
sporophyte generation
diploid generation that produces haploid spores that develop into the haploid generation ->produces 4 haploid spores
organ containing or producing spores
asexual reproductive cell capable of developing into a new organism without union with another cell. Within the gametocyte part of alteration of generation
male and female gamete producing regions
male gametangia; produce sperm
female gametangia; produces eggs
Gametophyte Dominant
What generation is dominnst in mosses
When a sporophyte gains dominance the gametophyte is
Sporophyte dominance
In Vascular plants, what is the dominate generation
all non-vascular plants -> Dominant gametophyte generation -> restricted to living in a wet environment
Phlyum Bryophyta(non-tracheophytes)
Mosses -> typically low laying -> superficial leaves, roots, and stems -> multicellular gametangia form at the tips of gametophytes
Phlyum Marchantiophyta (non-tracheophytes)
Liverworts -> flattened gametophytes with liver like lobes -> microscopic sporophyte -> can produce sexually or asexually
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Gemma cups
Asexual reproduction done by liverworts; contain a fragment of parent plant. When water fills the cup, the fragments spread tne reproduction occurs
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Phylum Anthocerotophyta(non-tracheophytes)
Hornworts -> Sporophytes are photosynthetic and embedded in the gametophyte tissue
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All Vascular Plants Dom. Sporophyte Generation: gametophyte reduced in size relative to sporophyte
the first vascular plants No roots or leaves Oldest known plant to have stem with avscular tissue
tissue that conducts water and dissolved minerals upward from roots, develop in sporophyte -> one way flow
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conducts sucrose and hormones throught the plant two way flow
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first to evolve in early tracheophytes
provide transport and support for plants
leaves with a single vascular strand -> found in lycophytes
Megaphyllis(true leaves)
leaves that contain branches of vascular strands -> found in ferns and seed plants
increase surface area for photosynthesis -> evolved twice
Spore Plants ->Lycophyta -> Pteriophytes
Phlyum Lycophyta
Seedless Club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts contain microphyllis leaves
Phlyum Pteridophytes
Spore plants Ferns and friends Require water for flagellated sperm
most abdudant group of seedless vascular plants closest living relative to seed plants Have distinct sporangia in cluster that are on the back of fronds (sori)
leaves on ferns that develop at the top of the rhizome as tighlty rolled up coils (fiddleheads)
Horsetails (Pteridophytes)
One Genus= Equisteum Sporophyte consists of ribbed jointed photosynthetic stems
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whisk fern
chiefly tropical clump-forming plants of skeletal appearance resembling whisk brooms w/o true leaves
Seed Plants
Functions of the Seed
-> Facilities dispersal of embryo -> allows developmental clock to be paused in inhospitable environment ->protects and provides food for the embryo -> plants no longer dependent on water for reproduction
contain a sporophyte embryo and stored food with a protective coat. Once the coat forms, most of the embryo’s metabolic activities stop. Germination Can't take place until water and oxygen reach the embryos
seed release occurs in response to an environmental trigger rather than at seed maturation ex: seeds release in wild fires
Reproduction in Seed Plants
Game gametophytes= pollen grains -Dispersed by wind or pollinator -No need for water Female gametophytes= embryo sack -Develop within an ovule in the ovary -Enclosed within diploid sporophytic tissue in angiosperms -Angiosperm ovaries develop into a fruit Angiosperms: enclosed within diploid sporophyte tissue
Gymnosperms (Naked Seeds)
-Ovule exposed on a scale ->All lack flowers and fruit
Phylum Coniferophyta (gymnosperm)
-Largest and most familiar gynosperm division ->Pines, spruces, cedars, firs, cypress Male gametophytes(pollen grains) develop micropsores> air sacs Female gametophytes (larger): form on the upper branches of a tree, Develop 2 ovules on each scale develop spores which develop into haploid diploid Produce cones that carry seeds
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Dry Cones
open, wildfire
Wet cone
damp, less prone to wild fires
Cycadophyla- cycads( gymnosperm)
slow growing in tropical and subtropical regions dioecious largest sperm cell of all organisms
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having male and female reproductive organs in separate plants or animals
Contain Vessel elements (w/ trachedis) in xylem 3 genera -only gymnosperm with vessel elements ex: Welwitschia
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Gingokophyta (gynmosperm)
-Out dated ecology -Dioecious
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all flowering plants Unclosed seeds
Largest and most abundant group of plants Ovules enclosed in diploid sporophyte tissue at the time of pollination
Most closely related to earliest angiosperm
oldest known angiosperm in fossil record lacked sepals and petals extinct
-Insect pollination -flowers -braod leaves with thick veins
Adaptions of Angiosperms
Outer most whorl Protects budding flower and supports leaves and petals
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second whorl typically colored attracts pollinators
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Stamens (Androecium)
male gamephyte produced
the part of the stamen that contains pollen; usually borne on a stalk
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the stalk of a stamen
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Carpels (gynoceium)
innermost whorl house the female gametophyte
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the apical end of the style where deposited pollen enters the pistil within the carpel
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neck or stalk of the carpel, connects stigma to ovary
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the organ that bears the ovules of a flower within carpel
transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant -mediation by insects -petals attract animal pollinators
Double fertilization
unique to angiosperms Each pollen grain contains two sperms One sperm unites w/ egg to form diploid zygote The other sperm unifies with 2 polar nuclei to form triploid endosperms (nutrients for the embryo)
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mature ovaries of angiosperms during seed formation, ovary begins to develop into fruit Adaption for seed dispersal
Vessel elements
long tubular formations with perforation plates at each end. Placed end to end to form a completely hollow pipeline from the roots to leaves
Essteintial nuritents
Vessel elements trancheids
Conducting cells in the xylem
Essential nutrients
elements or compounds that plants cannot synthesize -has identifiable role no other nutrient can sub. for deficiency of nutrient disrupts plant function
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
3 main essential nutirents of a plant
soil, water, and air
How nutrients is obtained by a plant
a dynamic mixture of living and non living components
nutrients required in large amounts; significant components of nucleic acid, proteins, and phospholipids. ex: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
nutrients required in small amounts; act as cofactors for specific enzymes Vital for plant health even though they're only required in a tiny amount ex: copper
partially decomposed organic matter; the organic component of soil
gradual wearing down of solid rock by rain, running water, and wind. transforms rock into soil -> creates gravel, silt, and clay
soil texture
determined by the relative proportions of gravel, sand, silt, and clay ->Affects the ability of roots to penetrate the soil to obtain water and nutrients and to anchor and support plants ->Affects the soil’s ability to hold water and make available to plants ->Affects the inability of oxygen for cellular respiration
Ionic charge of nutrients -soil texture -Soil pH
Factors affecting nutrient availability
Anions in Soil
negative charge readily avaliable for plants can leach->very quickly washed out by rain causing the loss of nutrients
Cations in soil
positive charge not immeditaley avlaible interact with negative charges found on ogranic matter and clay particles
charge of cations
Cation Exchange
protons and other cations bind to the negative charge on soil particles. Causing the release of bound nutrient cations (Mg2+. Ca2+) Nutrients are then available for uptake. Hydrogen ions switch places with a positively charged mineral ion, and the root takes up the nutrient
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Negative charged soil
retain nutrients because cations stay attached to it
in vascular plants, type of cell in xylem that has tapered ends and pits through which water and minerals flow
grow to large sizes
development of tracheids helped land plants to:
must be exchanged for H+
obliagte anaerobes
bacteria that cannot survive when oxygen is present
facultative anaerobes
can survive with or without oxygen
must have oxygen to survive
hemagglutinin and neuraminidase
proteins that are in influenzas viruses
chronic wasting disease
TSE(prion disease) that affects deer
mad cow disease(Bovine spongiform)
TSE that affects cows
TSE disease marked by increasing lack of coordination and advancing to paralysis and death within a year of the appearance of symptoms
transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
negative charge
charge of clay