Nutrition exam 2

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232 Terms
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organization of human body (6)
chemical-cell-tissue-organ-organ system-organism
smallest portion element
atom nucleus contains (2)
proton, neutrons
atom electrons sit in ... and are stable at what number?
valence shell, stable at 8 e-
2+ atoms joined by chem. properties
comple molecule
Large molecules made up of subunits
in molecular formula the subscript means...
# of atoms
in molecular formula the number means...
# of molecules
element def., what element most common body?
A pure substance made up of only one type of atom, oxygen (65%)
net + charge = Loss e-
net - charge = Gain e
redox rxn (reduction, oxidation) (OIL-RIG)
Transfer of electrons= Gives e = oxidized Receives e = reduced OIL = oxidation is loss RIG = reduction is gain
free radicals
Molecules with unpaired electrons = unstable Initiates cascade of disturbances = steals e from molecules if not stopped = oxidative stress (aging, heart disease, cancer, etc)
Protective effect = can interrupt the free radical cascade Stop free radicals damage
ionic bonds
cation and anion attract (stolen e-) NaCl
covalent bonds
share e- H2O
types covalent bonds (2)
polar = unequal sharing --> hydrophilic non-polar = equal sharing --> hydrophobic
hydrogen bonds
weak bonds
condensation rxn
make, releases H2O
hydrolysis run
break, added H20
pH acid
pH neutral
pH bases (alkaline)
what does buffer do? found where?
resist pH change blood, kidneys, lungs
mild headache, loss appetite starvation, diabetes
excess vomiting overuse laxatives hyperventilating
diabetic ketoacidosis
No glucose in cells → fat breakdown for energy → ketone production → cause acidic blood
balance, controlled nervous and endocrine sys.
what is hormone
chemical messenger, stimulate response
cell membrane
Provides protective boundary between intra and extracellular environments
Contains digestive enzymes that break down protein, lipids, nucleic acids Removes and recycles waste
Contains DNA which provides coded instructions for protein syn.
Gel-like substance inside cell that contains organelles proteins, electrolytes, and other molecules
smooth ER
Involves lipid synthesis No ribosomes = no protein synthesis
rough ER
Ribosomes = builds process proteins
Golgi apparatus
Membrane sacs that process and package proteins
Produces most energy (atp) of cell
passive transport mechanisms (3)
simple diffusion = high to low conc. faccilitated diffusion = transport protein high to low osmosis = water flow, low solute conc - high solute conc.
active transport mechanisms (3)
carrier mediated active transport = transport protein low to high conc. exocytosis = vesicle out of cell endocytosis = vesicle into cell
primary tissue types (4)
epithelial, connective, neural, muscle
epithelial tissue
Covers and lines body, organs, cavities
connective tissue
Provides structure to body b binding and anchoring body parts
neural tissue
Role in communicating by receiving and responding to stimuli
muscle tissue
Contracts and shortens when stimulates
organ level
Group of tissues that combine to carry out coordinated functions
digestive system consists of.. (2)
GI organs and accessory organs
basic process digestion (4)
ingestion, digestion, absorption, excretion
GI organs (5)
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Chews,mixes food with saliva and beguin mechanical digestion
carries food from mouth to stomach
Adds acids, enzymes, and gastric juice while grinding it into a semi liquid
small intestine
Breaks down nutrients using enzymes produced by sm intestine and pancreas, nutrients absorbed into blood and lymph
large intestine
Absorbs water and some minerals and vitamins
tissue layers GI tract
serosa, muscularis, submucosa (contains circulatory and lymph vessels), mucosa, lumen
accessory organs (4)
salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
sphincter between esophagus and stomach
esophageal sphincter
what do sphincters do
allows no back flow
time for food pass from out to anus
24-72 hours
in mouth food is ..
in esophagus food is...
in stomach and small intestine food is...
in large intestine food is...
mechanical digestion occurs how (3)
mastication, peristalsis, segmentation
chemical digestion involves ...
protein enzyme
promises/ peptidases
carbohydrate enzyme
fat enzyme
enzyme characteristics (5)
bind, break, participate, catalysts, create
cephalic phase
early signaling prepares GI tract for digestion
digestion beings...
mechanical - mouth chemical - saliva (some digestion carbs)
GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)
improper sphincter closure
major site mechanical digestion, some chem digestion w/ stomach acid
in stomach bolus breaks to...
sphincter btwn stomach and small intestine
pyloric sphincter
Why is hydrochloric acid (HCl) important during digestion & absorption?
Kills harmful pathogens consumed Helps to activate digestive enzymes Helps to digest dietary protein
pH stomac acid
peptid ulcers caused by...
bacteria (H. pyloric infection), decreases mucus which allows stomach acid to eat away at stomach
small intestine movement (2)
peristalsis, segmentation
primary site for digestion and absorption
small intestine
Secretes Bicarbonate which neutralizes pH of stomach acid Also release enzymes for lipid, protein,and carbohydrate breakdown
produces bile (crucial for digestion/absorption lipids)
stores bile, releases to small intestine
purpose of microvilli and villi
increase surface area
celica disease
autoimmune disease, villi damaged = poor nutrient absorption
circulatory system delivers what nutrients(4)
carbohydrates, amino acids, minerals, water-soluble vitamins
lymphatic system delivers what nutrients(4)
most fats, some vitamins
function large intestine
Absorb Folate, biotin, and short chain fatty acids Water absorption mostly absorbed here
gut microbiome
prebiotics feed probiotics
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
chronic autoimmune disease, inflammation which permanently harms intestine ex. Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
functional disorder, not lead to serious disease, not cause inflammation, effects 20% US adults
small intestine absorbs majority of ...
main source energy body
sources carbs (4)
starches, dairy, fruit, candy etc
simple carbohydrates (2)
monosaccharides, disaccharides
monosaccharides (3)
glucose (fruits and veg. ), fructose (fruits and veg.), galactose (milk)
disaccharides (3), and made by what reaction
condensation rxn forms glycosidic bond, lactose (glucose + galactose), sucrose (glucose + fructose), maltose (glucose + glucose)
complex carbohydrates
oligosaccharides (3-10 saccharides), polysaccharides (starch and glycogen)
starch come from
major storage carb in plants,
types of starch (2)
amylose = straight chain polymer amylopectin = branches(digested quicker)
glycogen comes from...
storage form carbs in animals (liver and muscle)
glycogen structure
highly branches, many sites for enzyme action
fiber types (2)
insoluble soluble = gel-like fiber dissolves water (from fresh fruit/veg)
soluble fiber and cholesterol
Liver takes cholesterol makes bile→ stores bile→bile binds to fiber→fiber and bile excreted by feces → cholesterol left behind in bile reabsorbed into blood --> Dec. risk CVD, obesity, diabetes
whole grain layers (3)
bran --> endosperm --> germ
germ contains (2)
fatty acids, vitamins
bran contains (2)
fiber, vitamins
endosperm contains
refined grain
processing, endosperm left
nutrient added into food for reason
nutrients present originally, processing loses nutrients, put back original nutrients
US required to put back into enriched grain (5)
iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate
how many carbs do we need?
RDA 130 g/day AMDR 45-60% calories
added sugars
< 10% total calories per day
low carb diet
<100 g CHO/day unlimited meats, high-fat foods decrease glycogen synthesis (water/protein loss)
carbohydrates in mouth
mechanical = mastication chemical = salivary amylase (act on alpha1,4 linkages)
carbs in stomach
mechanical = lots digestion chemical = none
carbs in small intestine
polysaccharides broken monosaccharides --> then absorbed passive fructose absorption active glucose/galactose through blood to liver
lactose intolerance
cause: lactase deficiency treatment: dietary changes, lactic pills
glucose dependent tissues
red blood cells, brain
fates of glucose (3)
immediate energy source convert into glycogen (glycogenesis)--> limited storage liver and muscle convert to fat --> unlimited storage in adipose tissue
hormones regulate blood glucose (2)
insulin, glucagon
when high blood glucose-->
pancreas secrete insulin
promotes glucose enter cells, promotes glycogen synthesis inlayer/muscle, converted fat
when low blood glucose-->
glucagon stimulates liver release glucose
type 1 diabetes
cannot produce/release insulin in pancreas blood glucose remains high
type 2 diabetes
pancreas produces insulin cells cannot uptake
9 kcal/g
carbohydrates energy supply, and elements
4 kcal/g, C,H,O
lipids are hydrophobic which means (non-polar or polar)
types lipids (4)
fatty acids, triglycerides, sterols, phospholipids
fatty acids chemical structure
carbon chain with Hydrogen atoms Methyl (CH3) (omega ) and carboxylic acid (COOH) (alpha) groups
chain length
Short < 8 carbons Medium 8-12 carbons Long chain > 12 Shorter the chain = lower temp = liquid at room temp = oil
no double bonds
saturated fatty acids
1 double bond
unsaturated (monounsaturated)
2+ double bonds
unsaturated (polyunsaturated)
fatty acid configuration (2)
cis = H on same side chain (bent) trans = H on different side chain (straight)
which are more dangerous (cis or trans)
trans -- USDA banned in 2018
essential fatty acids (2)
omega 3 fatty acids omega 6fatty acids
omega 3 fatty acids
18 C, 3 cis double bonds decrease clotting and inflammation
omega 6 fatty acids
18 C, 2 cis double bonds increase clotting and inflammation
most abundant lipid in diet storage form fat (3 fatty acids and glycerol backbone) can be saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated
phospholipids chemical structure (hydrophobic tail, hydrophilic head)
3 carbon glycerol molecule with 2 fatty acids + phosphate group on the third carbon allow fat to suspend in water component lipoproteins
sterols chemical structure
4 carbon ring and hydrocarbon side chain
sterols = cholesterol
synthesized in liver non-essential = liver produces enough no energy provided found only animal foods
unsaturated fat (lower/raises)cholesterol synthesis