BIOS 110: Exam III

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The first stage of mitosis/meiosis, nuclear envelope breaks down and chromosomes are visible under a microscope
The second stage of mitosis/meiosis, chromosomes are at opposite poles and aligned
The third stage of mitosis/meiosis, chromosomes are pulled apart by spindle fibers
The last stage of mitosis/meiosis, nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes to create 2 (mitosis) or 4 (meiosis) daughter cells
Cell division that creates 2 identical daughter cells, happens asexually
Cell division that creates 4 genetically unique daughter cells, happens sexually
Crossing over
Occurs in prophase I, interchange of sections between homologous chromosomes (only in meiosis)
Independent assortment
Randomization of chromosome location that creates genetic diversity, 2n = number of possibilities
Non disjunction
Failure of chromosomes to separate during anaphase I or II which creates unequal daughter cells, most likely occurs in women over 40
G0 Phase
"Holding state" for cells who are do not need to divide
G1 Checkpoint
Checkpoint in which the cell determines if it is able to divide based on undamaged DNA and adequate cell size
G2 Checkpoint
Checkpoint to see if cells have replicated their DNA successfully
Metaphase checkpoint
Checkpoint to see if a cell's DNA is attached to spindle fibers
A gene that encourages cell growth
Tumor suppressor gene
A gene that blocks unscheduled or unneeded cell division
Anchorage dependence
Requirement that a cell needs to be attached to something in order to replicate (cancer cells lack this)
A gene that will cause cell death (apoptosis) due to damaged DNA
A cell containing 2 complete sets of chromosomes
A cell containing only 1 complete set of chromosomes
Social control
Cells divide in response from other cells
Proto-oncogene, binds to Rb and enters nucleus to encourage cell division in the S phase
Tumor suppressor gene, "bouncer" for E2F that ensures it is a proto-oncogene and can enter the nucleus
Diversity dependent inhibition
Once a layer of cells have divided enough to fill a space, they will stop dividing
Contact inhibition
If a cell is touching another cell on all sides, it will not divide
Molecule whose concentration varies during various stages of the cell cycle
Promotes mitosis and degradation of cyclins
Cell death caused by activation of p53
Cell with unregulated cell growth and becomes a cancer cell
DNA base pairings
A-T / C-G
RNA base pairings
A-U / C-G
Leading strand
Synthesized 5' to 3'
Lagging strand
Synthesized 3' to 5'
Enzyme that adds telomeres to the 3' end of DNA, only in eukaryotes
Neutral mutation
Change in base pairings, but does not affect the protein
Missense mutation
Alters a codon for one amino acid that causes it to read as a different amino acid (for example, CUG --> CGU)
Nonsense mutation
Alters a codon for one amino acid that changes it into a stop codon
Frameshift mutation
Alters the reading frame of codons that causes a domino effect for all codons after it (for example, CUG --> CCUG)
Contains an attachment site and anticodon that are complementary to the codon
P site
Site that carries the tRNA that holds the growing chain
A site
Site that carries the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain
E site
Site that ejects the discharged tRNAs
Start of the protein synthesis process, occurs once
Addition of amino acids to the chain, occurs more than once
Ends protein synthesis process due to release factors, occurs once