The name given to Brentano's brand of psychology because it focused on mental operations or functions. Act psychology dealt with the interaction between mental processes and physical events.
Brentano, Franz Clemens (1838-1917)
Believed that introspection should be used to understand the functions of the mind rather than its elements. __________'s position came to be called act psychology.
Clever Hans Phenomenon
The creation of apparently high-level intelligent feats by nonhuman animals by consciously or unconsciously furnishing them with subtle cues that guide their behavior.
Context Theory of Meaning
Titchener's contention that a sensation is given meaning by the images it elicits. That is, for Titchener, meaning is determined by the law of contiguity.
The arrangement and rearrangement of mental elements that can result from apperception.
Donders, Franciscus Cornelius (1818-1889)
Used reaction time to measure the time it took to perform various mental acts.
Ebbinghaus, Hermann (1850-1909)
The first to study learning and memory experimentally.
Elements of Thought
According to Wundt and Titchener, the basic sensations from which more complex thoughts are derived.
The basic elements of emotion that accompany each sensation. Wundt believed that emotions consist of various combinations of elemental feelings.
The thought a person has in mind before he or she chooses the words to express it.
Husserl, Edmund (1859-1938)
Called for a pure phenomenology that sought to discover the essence of subjective experience.
According to Kulpe, the pure mental acts of, for example, judging and doubting, without those acts having any particular referents or images.
Direct subjective experience as it occurs.
Concept proposed by Brentano, according to which mental acts always intend something. That is, mental acts embrace either some object in the physical world or some mental image (idea).
Reflection on one's subjective experience, whether such reflection is directed toward the detection of the presence or absence of a sensation (as in the case of Wundt and Titchener) or toward the detection of complex thought processes (as in the cases of Brentano, Stumpf, Husserl, and others).
Kulpe, Oswald (1862-1915)
Applied systematic, experimental introspection to the study of problem solving and found that some mental operations are imageless.
Experience that is provided by various measuring devices and is therefore not immediate, direct experience.
The measurement of the time required to perform various mental acts.
According to Husserl, those universal, unchanging mental processes that characterize the mind and in terms of which we do commerce with the physical environment.
A problem-solving strategy that can be induced by instructions or by experience and that is used without a person's awareness.
Muller, George Elias (1850-1934)
Considered one of the early pioneers or giants of experimental psychology, ________ worked in psychophysics, perception, and memory.
Mental experience that occurs when sensations are given meaning by the memory of past experiences.
The type of introspective analysis that focuses on intact mental phenomena rather than on isolated mental elements.
Principle of Contrasts
According to Wundt, the fact that experiences of one type often intensify opposite types of experiences, such as when eating something sour will make the subsequent eating of something sweet taste sweeter than it would otherwise.
Principle of the Heterogony of Ends
According to Wundt, the fact that goal-directed activity often causes experiences that modify the original motivational pattern.
Principle Toward the Development of Opposites
According to Wundt, the tendency for prolonged experience of one type to create a mental desire for the opposite type of experience.
The type of phenomenology proposed by Husserl, the purpose of which was to create a taxonomy of the mind. Husserl believed that before a science of psychology would be possible, we would first need to understand the essences of those mental processes in terms of which we understand and respond to the world.
The difference between the time it originally takes to learn something and the time it takes to relearn it.
A group of scientists who share common assumptions, goals, problems, and methods.
A basic mental experience that is triggered by an environmental stimulus.
Letting past experience influence an introspective report.
The school of psychology founded by Titchener, the goal of which was to describe the structure of the mind.
Stumpf, Carl (1848-1936)
Psychologist who was primarily interested in musical perception and who insisted that psychology study intact, meaningful mental experiences instead of searching for meaningless mental elements.
Titchener, Edward Bradford (1867-1927)
Created the school of structuralism. Unlike Wundt's voluntarism, structuralism was much more in the tradition of empiricism-associationism.
Tridimensional Theory of Feelings
Wundt's contention that feelings vary along three dimension: pleasantness-unpleasantness, excitement-calm, and strain-relaxation.
Vaihinger, Hans (1852-1933)
Contended that because sensations are all that we can be certain of, all conclusions reached about so-called physical reality must be fictitious. Although fictions are false, they are nonetheless essential for societal living.
Wundt's 10-volume work, in which he investigated higher mental processes through historical analysis and naturalistic observation.
The name given to Wundt's school of psychology because of his belief that, through the process of apperception, individuals could direct their attention toward whatever they wished.
According to Wundt, that aspect of humans that allows them to direct their attention anywhere they wish. Because of his emphasis on will, Wundt's version of psychology was called voluntarism.
Wundt, Wilhelm Maximilian (1832-1920)
The founder of experimental psychology as a separate discipline and of the school of voluntarism.
A group of psychologists under the influence of Oswald Kulpe at the University of Wurzburg. Among other things, this group found that some thoughts occur without a specific referent (that is, they are imageless), the higher mental processes could be studied experimentally, and problems have motivational properties that persist until the problem is solved.
Those features that an organism possesses that allow it to survive and reproduce.
Binet, Alfred (1857-1911)
Found that following Galton's methods of measuring intelligence often resulted in falsely concluding that deaf and blind children had low intelligence. _______ attempted to measure directly the cognitive abilities he thought constituted intelligence.
Binet-Simon Scale of Intelligence
The scale Binet and Simon devised to directly measure the various cognitive abilities they believed intelligence comprised. The scale first appeared in 1905 and was revised in 1908 and in 1911.
Burt, Cyril Lodowic (1883-1971)
Claimed that his studies of identical twins reared together and apart showed intelligence to be largely innate. Evidence suggested that __________ invented his data, and a major scandal ensued.
Cattell, James McKeen (1860-1944)
Worked with Galton and developed a strong interest in measuring individual differences. _________ brought Galton's methods of intelligence testing to the United States.
Coefficient of Correlation (r)
A mathematical expression indicating the magnitude of correlation between two variables.
Systematic variation between two variables.
Darwin, Charles (1809-1882)
Devised a theory of evolution that emphasized a struggle for survival that results in the natural selection of the most fit organisms. By showing the continuity between human and nonhuman animals, the importance of individual differences, and the importance of adaptive behavior, __________ strongly influenced subsequent psychology.
The use of selective breeding to increase the general intelligence of the population.
A modern extension of Darwin's theory to the explanation of human and nonhuman social behavior (also called sociobiology).
A complex statistical technique that involves analyzing correlations among measurements and attempting to explain the observed correlations by postulating various influences (factors).
According to Darwin, an organism's ability to survive and reproduce.
Galton, Francis (1822-1911)
Influenced by his cousin, Charles Darwin, was keenly interested in the measurement of individual differences. ____________ was convinced that intellectual ability is inherited and therefore recommended eugenics, or the selective breeding of humans. He was the first to attempt to systematically measure intelligence, to use a questionnaire to gather data, to use a word-association test, to study mental imagery, to define and use the concepts of correlation and median, and to systematically study twins.
General Intelligence (g)
The aspect of intelligence that, according to Spearman, is largely inherited and coordinates specific intellectual abilities.
Goddard, Henry Herbert (1866-1957)
Translated Binet's intelligence test into English and used it to test and classify students with mental retardation. __________ was an extreme nativist who recommended that those with mental deficiencies be sterilized or institutionalized. As a result of ____________'s efforts, the number of immigrants allowed into the United States was greatly reduced.
Hollingworth, Leta Stetter (1886-1939)
Rejected the belief, popular at the time, that women achieve less than males do because they are intellectually inferior to males; instead her explanation emphasized differences in social opportunity. Her career focused on improving the education of both subnormal and gifted students.
The type of fitness that involves the survival and perpetuation of copies of one's genes into subsequent generations. With this expanded definition of fitness, one can be fit by helping his or her kin survive and reproduce as well as by producing one's own offspring.
Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
Lamarck's contention that adaptive abilities developed during an organism's lifetime are passed on to the organism's offspring.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Stern's suggested procedure for quantifying intelligence. The intelligence quotient is calculated by dividing mental age by chronological age.
Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste (1744-1829)
Proposed that adaptive characteristics acquired during an organism's lifetime were inherited by that organism's offspring. This was the mechanism by which species were transformed.
Malthus, Thomas (1766-1834)
Economist who wrote Essay on the Principle of Population (1798), which provided Darwin with the principle he needed to explain the observations that he had made while aboard the Beagle. The principle stated that because more individuals are born than environmental resources can support, there is a struggle for survival and only the fittest survive.
Mendel, Gregor (1822-1884)
The monk who is credited with discovering genetics based on his work with pea plants.
According to Stern, a composite score reflecting all the levels of the Binet-Simon test that a child could successfully pass.
The exercises that Binet suggested for enhancing determination, attention, and discipline. These procedures would prepare a child for formal education.
A key concept in Darwin's theory of evolution. Because more members of a species are born than environmental resources can support, nature selects those with characteristics most conducive to survival under the circumstances, which allows them to reproduce.
The debate over the extent to which important attributes are inherited or learned.
Pearson, Karl (1857-1936)
Devised the formula for calculating the coefficient of correlation.
Regression Toward the Mean
The tendency for extremes to become less extreme in one's offspring. For example, the offspring of extremely tall parents tend not to be as tall as the parents.
Simon, Theodore (1873-1961)
Collaborated with Binet to develop the first test designed to directly measure intelligence.
Spencer's contention that, if given freedom to compete in society, the ablest individuals will succeed and the weaker ones will fail, and this is at it should be.
Spearman, Charles (1863-1945)
Using an early form of factor analysis, found that intelligence comprised specific factors (s) and general intelligence (g). He believed the latter to be largely inherited.
Spencer, Herbert (1820-1903)
First a follower of Lamarck and then of Darwin. __________ applied Darwinian principles to society by saying that society should maintain a laissez-faire policy so that the ablest individuals could prevail. ________'s position is called Social Darwinism.
The observation first made by Bain and later by Spencer that behavior resulting in pleasurable consequences tends to be repeated and behavior resulting in painful consequences tends not to be.
Stern, William (1871-1938)
Coined the term mental age and suggested the intelligence quotient as a way of quantifying intelligence.
Struggle for Survival
The situation that arises when there are more offspring of a species than environmental resources can support.
Survival of the Fittest
The notion that, in a struggle for limited resources, those organisms with traits conducive to survival under the circumstances will live and reproduce.
Terman, Lewis Madison (1877-1956)
Revised Binet's test of intelligence, making it more compatible with U.S. culture. _____________, along with Goddard and Yerkes, was instrumental in creating the Army Alpha and Army Beta tests. He also conducted a longitudinal study of gifted children and found that, contrary to the belief at the time, gifted children tended to become healthy, gifted adults.
Wallace, Alfred Russell (1823-1913)
Developed a theory of evolution almost identical to Darwin's, at almost the same time that Darwin developed his theory.
Wechsler, David (1896-1981)
Developed a new way of determining IQ scores, which is featured in his two tests—the WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) and WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children).
Yerkes, Robert M. (1876-1956)
Suggested that psychology could help in the war effort (World War I) by creating tests that could be used to place recruits according to their abilities and to screen the mentally unfit from military service. The testing program was largely ineffective and was discontinued soon after the war.
Carr's term for a unit of behavior with three characteristics: a need, an environmental setting, and a response that satisfies the need.
Angell, James Rowland (1869-1949)
As president of the American Psychological Association and as chairman of the psychology department at the University of Chicago for 25 years, did much to promote functionalism.
Psychology that is useful in solving practical problems. The structuralists opposed such practicality, but Munsterberg and, later, the functionalists emphasized it.
Baldwin, James Mark (1861-1934)
Founded several psychology programs, including the first in Canada. Did important early work in social psychology, cognitive development, and linking psychology with evolution. He served as APA president.
Calkins, Mary Whiton (1863-1930)
Although satisfying all the requirements for a PhD at Harvard, she was denied the degree because she was a woman. In spite of such restrictions, _________ made significant contributions to the study of verbal learning and memory and to self-psychology. Her many honors included being elected the first female president of the American Psychological Association in 1905.
Carr, Harvey (1873-1954)
An early functionalistic psychologist at the University of Chicago.
Cattell, James McKeen (1860-1944)
Represented functionalistic psychology at Columbia University. He did much to promote applied psychology.
Clark, Kenneth Bancroft (1914-2005)
Along with his colleagues, conducted research that demonstrated the negative effects of segregation of children. A portion of this research was cited in the 1954 Supreme Court decision that ended the legal basis for segregated education in the United States. ________ went on to become the first African American president of the APA in 1970.
The term often used to describe Thorndike's theory of learning because of its concern with the neural bonds or connections that associate sense impressions and impulses to action.
Dewey, John (1859-1952)
A key person in the development of functionalism. Some mark the formal beginning of the school of functionalism with the 1896 publication of ___________'s article "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology."
The brand of psychology suggested by Woodworth that stressed the internal variables that motivate organisms to act.
According to James, the self that consists of everything a person can call his or her own. The empirical self consists of the material self (all of one's material possessions), the social self (one's self as known by others), and the spiritual self (all of which a person is conscious).
The application of psychological principles to legal matters. Munsterberg is considered the first forensic psychologist.
Under the influence of Darwin, the school of functionalism stressed role of consciousness and behavior in adapting to the environment.
Those learned patterns of behavior that James and others believed were vital for the functioning of society.
Hall, Granville Stanley (1844-1924)
Created the first U.S. experimental psychology laboratory, founded and became the first president of the American Psychological Association, and invited Freud to Clark University to give a series of lectures. ________ thus helped psychoanalysis receive international recognition. Many of the beliefs contained in his two-volume book on adolescence are now considered incorrect. Nonetheless, that work is currently seen as an important pioneering effort in educational, child, and adolescent psychology and in parent education and child welfare programs.
Identical Elements Theory of Transfer
Thorndike's contention that the extent to which learning transfers from one situation to another is determined by the similarity between the two situations.
Ideo-Motor Theory of Behavior
According to James, ideas cause behavior, and thus we can control our behavior by controlling our ideas.
The application of psychological principles to such matters as personnel selection; increasing employee productivity; equipment design; and marketing, advertising, and packaging of products. Münsterberg is usually considered the first industrial psychologist.
James, William (1842-1910)
Was instrumental in the founding of functionalistic psychology. ___________ emphasized the function of both consciousness and behavior. For him the only valid criterion for evaluating a theory, thought, or act is whether it works. In keeping with his pragmatism, he claimed that psychology needs to employ both scientific and nonscientific procedures. Similarly, on the individual level, sometimes one must believe in free will and at other times in determinism.
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
The theory that people first respond and then have an emotional experience. For example, we run first, and then we are frightened. An implication of the theory is that we should act according to the way we want to feel.
Lange, Carl George (1834-1900)
Along with James, proposed the theory that a person's emotional experience follows his or her behavior.
Law of Effect
Thorndike's contention that reward strengthens associations, whereas punishment weakens them. Later, Thorndike revised the law to state that reward strengthens associations, but punishment has no effect on them.
Law of Exercise
Thorndike's contention that the strength of an association varied with the frequency of the association's use. Thorndike discarded this law in 1929.
Morgan, Conwy Lloyd (1852-1936)
An early comparative psychologist who believed that there is a gradation of consciousness among animal species. To infer the cognitive processes used by various animals, he observed their naturally occurring behavior.
The insistence that explanations of animal behavior be kept as simple as possible. One should never attribute higher mental activities to an animal if lower mental activities are adequate to explain its behavior.
Munsterberg, Hugo (1863-1916)
Stressed the application of psychological principles in clinical, forensic, and industrial psychology. In so doing, ____________ created applied psychology.
The still widely used method of investigating verbal learning invented by Calkins. Pairs of stimulus material are first presented to subjects and then, after several exposures, only one member of the pair is presented and the subject is asked to recall the second.
The belief that usefulness is the best criterion for determining the validity of an idea.
The experimental chamber Thorndike used for systematically studying animal behavior.
Hall's contention that all stages of human evolution are reflected in the life of an individual.
Munsterberg's method of treating mentally disturbed individuals, whereby he would strengthen thoughts antagonistic to those causing a problem.
Romanes, George John (1848-1894)
One of the first to follow Darwin's lead and study animal behavior. ___________'s research was very subjective, however, and relied heavily on anecdotal evidence.
Self as Knower
According to James, the pure ego that accounts for a person's awareness of his or her empirical self.
According to James, how a person feels about himself or herself based on the ratio of successes to attempts. One can increase self-esteem either by accomplishing more or attempting less.
Stream of Consciousness
Term for the way James thought the mind worked. James described the mind as consisting of an ever-changing stream of interrelated, purposive thoughts rather than static elements that could be isolated from one another, as the structuralism had suggested.
Sumner, Francis Cecil (1895-1954)
In 1920, under the supervision of Hall, became the first African American to obtain a PhD in psychology. Later, under ___________'s leadership, Howard University became a highly influential training center for African American psychologists.
Thorndike, Edward Lee (1874-1949)
Marks the transition between the schools of functionalism and behaviorism. __________ concluded from his objective animal research that learning occurs gradually, occurs independent of consciousness, and is the same for all mammals. His final theory of learning was that practice alone has no effect on an association (neural bond) and that positive consequences strengthen an association but negative consequences do not weaken it.
Washburn, Margaret Floy (1871-1939)
First woman to attain a doctorate in psychology and second female president of the APA (1921). She made significant contributions to comparative psychology by studying animal behavior under controlled conditions before inferring the mental attributes necessary to explain the observed behavior.
Woodworth, Robert Sessions (1869-1962)
An influential functionalist at Columbia University who emphasized the role of motivation in behavior.
Bechterev's term for what Pavlov called a conditioned reflex.
Bechterev, Vladimir (1857-1927)
Like Pavlov, looked upon all human behavior as reflexive. However, ____________ studied skeletal reflexes rather than the glandular reflexes that Pavlov studied.
The use of learning principles in treating behavioral or emotional problems.
The school of psychology, founded by John Watson, that insisted that behavior be psychology's subject matter and that psychology's goal be the prediction and control of behavior.
A learned reflex.
Conditioned Response (CR)
A response elicited by the conditioned stimulus (CS).
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
A previous biologically neutral stimulus that, through experience, comes to elicit a certain response (CR).
According to Pavlov, the pattern of points of excitation and inhibition that characterizes the cortex at any given moment.
The inhibition of an inhibitory process. Disinhibition is demonstrated when, after extinction, a loud noise causes the conditioned response to reappear.
According to Pavlov, brain activity that leads to overt behavior of some type.
The neurotic behavior that Pavlov created in some of his laboratory animals by bringing excitatory and inhibitory tendencies into conflict.
The elimination or reduction of a conditioned response (CR) that results when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is presented but is not followed by the unconditioned stimulus (US).
Those objects or events that become signals (CSs) for the occurrence of biologically significant events, such as when a tone signals the eventuality of food.
The name given to McDougall's version of psychology because of its emphasis on purposive or goal-directed behavior.
The reduction or cessation of activity caused by stimulation, such as when extinction causes a conditioned stimulus to inhibit a conditioned response. It was Sechenov's discovery of inhibitory mechanisms in the brain that led him to believe that all human behavior could be explained in terms of brain physiology.
Kuo, Zing Yang (1898-1970)
A Chinese psychologist that worked with kittens to show that rat killing was not instinctual.
Law of Recency
Watson's observation that typically it is the "correct" response that terminates a learning trial and it is this final or most recent response that will be repeated when the organism is next placed in that learning situation.
Luria, Alexander Romanovich (1902-1977)
Russian psychologist noted for many diverse contributions, including conflict, traumatic brain injury, and memory.
McDougall, William (1871-1938)
Pursued a type of behaviorism very different from Watson's. ____________'s behaviorism emphasized purposive and instinctive behavior.
The version of behaviorism that accepts the contention that overt behavior should be psychology's subject matter but is willing to speculate about internal causes of behavior, such as various mental and physiological states.