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Classical Mythology Exam 2

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Who is Minerva?
Goddess of wisdom and crafts. Practical knowledge that separates humans from animals. Daughter of Zeus and Metis.
What is city of Athens named after?
She is named after the goddess Athena.
What is Athena/Minerva the goddess of?
Wisdom, Strategy, Handicrafts, Carpentry
What are Athena/Minerva's emblems?
The owl (associated with wisdom) and the olive tree (associated with cilivilzation and prosperity).
Who is Artemis?
Twin sister of Apollo, and daughter of Zeus and Leto
What is Artemis associated with?
Hunting and Archery. She is also connected to male transitions to adulthood: hunting and war.
What is the myth of Actaeon and Artemis?
Actaeon discovers Artemis and her attendants bathing. She curses him that if he ever speaks, he'll turn into a deer. He cries for help, and gets turned into a deer. Finally, his hunting dogs attack him.
What is Ovid's belief about the gods?
He believes that the gods are fundamentally cruel.
Who is Hippolytus?
The son of Theseus and stepson of Phaedra.
What is the myth of Hippolytus?
The myth of Hippolytus had many manifestations across the Mediterranean, with the same essential facts: a married woman becomes sexually obsessed with a younger man, and, when spurned, she responds to his rejection with persecution and retaliation (typically by accusing him of rape to her husband). Aphrodite takes offense, and causes Phaedra to fall in love with Hippolytus.
Who kills Hippolytus?
Poseidon by calling on a sea monster.
What is Rex Menorensis?
Temple at Lake Nemi, and Name of a Roman Priest of Diana, it means “King of the Forest.”
Who is Hera?
Second wife of Zeus, second child of Cronus and Rhea, and goddess of marriage.
Why does Hera get angry at Zeus?
It's for Zeus' adultery towards his lover/victims.
What are the two basic categories of gods?
Gods above and and gods below (or Chtonic gods).
Who is Pluto/Hades?
Eldest son of Cronos and Rhea and older brother of Poseidon and Zeus. God of the dead and the underworld.
Who is Cerberus?
Cerberus is Hades three-headed dog.
What are Hades/Pluto and Persephone's/Proserpina roles of the underworld?
Their role is to rule the land of the dead and keep the dead separate from the living.
What is an example of Chtonic Gods?
Hermes Chtonios. He leads the dead to the underworld.
How is Demeter associated with being a Chtonic God?
She is associated with seeds underground.
How is Persephone associated with being a Chtonic God?
She is associated with representing death, and rebirth of the seasons.
Who is Thanatos?
The god of death, and brother of Hypnos (sleep).
Who are the Erinyes?
They are the Furies (also called Eumenides). They punish those who harm blood relatives
Who is Hekate?
Goddess of witchcraft and magic. She is also known as Trivia to the romans, the "three roads" goddess.
What are the steps of the Burial Rites for the Greeks?
Prothesis ((laying out the corpse), Ekphora (carrying out the corpse), Offerings at the graveside, Perideipnon (banquet in honour of the deceased).
What are the funerals for Romans elite like?
Roman funerals show concern with exemplarity, memory, and legacy.
What is the Underworld like for the Greeks/Romans?
The River Styx separates the worlds of the living and the dead. Charon the Ferryman takes the dead across the river. Cerberus guards the entrance to the kingdom of Hades.
What are Nymphs described as?
A semi-divine being, often related to nature.
What are some consequences for nymphs/humans?
1. if she is female, she will become pregnant. 2. if she is an unmarried human woman, this leads to difficulty with her father or other family members. 3. she may be cast out of her home or even killed. 4. if she is a married human woman, the child may be abandoned at birth or else passed off as her husband’s. 5. if she is a follower of Artemis, she may be punished by Artemis for losing her virginity. 6. if Zeus is involved, she may be harassed and harmed by Hera, regardless of whether the relationship was consensual. 7. if male, consequences will vary, but generally be unpleasant in the end.
Who is Europa?
Europa, in Greek mythology, the daughter either of Phoenix or of Agenor, king of Phoenicia. The beauty of Europa inspired the love of Zeus, who approached her in the form of a white bull and carried her away from Phoenicia to Crete.
Who is Io?
Io was a priestess of Hera and daughter of the King of Argos. Io gets turned into a cow by Zeus.
What is Io also known as?
The Victim of the Gods.
Who do Zeus and Apollo lust after?
Teenage boys.
Who is Hyacinthus?
A spartan prince, and was desired by Apollo.
Who is Ganymede?
He was the "loveliest of mortals." Zeus kidnap him and made him the wine-pourer of the gods.
Who is Aphrodite/Venus?
The goddess of love, lust, beauty, and sex.
What are the different versions of Aphrodite?
1. The Cyprian (Cyprus) 2. The Cytherean (Cythera) 3. Aphrodite Hetaira (patroness of courtesans) 4. Aphrodite Porne (patroness of prostitutes) 5. Venus Cloacina (patroness of drainage systems and public toilets)
What are some dedications to Venus by the Romans?
Veneralia on April 1st, Vinalia on April 23rd, and Robigalia on April 25th.
What are roman's sexuality?
Romans envisioned the act of sex as necessarily involving what they regarded an “active” participant and a “passive” participant.
Who is Priapus?
Rustic Italian God of fertility, livestock, and male genitalia.
Who is Vanth?
The death spirit or demon.
What is the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus?
The most important cult space in Rome. It's dedicated to three gods Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva.
What is Opus Quadratum?
squared stone blocks stacked in rows with no mortar.
Who is Picus?
King of the Humans in Prehistoric history. He's also the Latin word for "woodpecker."
Who is Saturn in Greek?
Cronos
Who is Canen?
Daughter of Janus, two-faced god of beginnings and doorways. Marries Picus and has one child with him: Faunus
Who is Circe?
Powerful witch goddess, and Daughter of Sol (Helios), a Titan.
Who is Vertumnus?
A shapeshifting agricultural god. First Fruits are dedicated to him. Originally an Etruscan god.
Who is Pomona?
Goddess of Fruit; Cares for fruit trees; Her name means “Fruit Woman”, from the Latin word “pomum” (fruit).
What do Satyrs, Pan, Silvanus, Priapus have in common?
All lustful, have a tendency to chase nymphs. Used to set the scene
Who is Janus?
Two-faced god of beginnings and doorways, considered to be very powerful.
Who is Lares?
Household Gods.
Who is Flora?
Goddess of flowers.
Who is Carna (or Carda or Cardea)?
Goddess of hinges and door handles
What are some examples of defining a hero?
- stronger, more powerful, more beautiful, and more courageous than the ordinary human • a divine parent or at least descended from the gods (grandchild or great-grandchild) • born in an unusual fashion • seeks adventures and goes on a quest or a series of quests. • becomes isolated from his fellow humans • has to do battle with monsters
What is Apothosis?
When a human becomes a god.
What are two types of Apothosis?
- Mythical hero/demi-god - Historical king or emperor
What are some examples of Pre-Trojan War Heroes?
Heracles, Jason and the Argonauts, Theseus, Perseus, the Calydonian Boar hunters, the Seven against Thebes.
Who is Hercules?
Son of Zeus and the human woman, Alcmene. Known for his strength, even from infancy.
How many labors did Hercules have to do for killing his family?
12