Hematology Final

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A set of laboratory practices that ensure reliable outcomes for patient results is
Quality Assurance
which of the following is the most important element of standard precautions?
Production, development, and maturation of all blood cells is called?
The development order for Red Blood Cells (RBCs) is which of the following?
Pronormoblast, basophilic normoblast, polychromatophilic normoblast, orthochromic normoblast, reticulocyte, erythrocyte
How many parameters does a CBC have?
When viewing a slide with a 100x objective and 10x ocular lens, what is the total magnification?
The most stable parameter of a CBC
Intrinsic factor, secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach, is necessary for
absorption of b12
Pancytopenia means
n which of the following conditions should a CBC be placed at 37 degree C for 15-30 minutes before running the test?
Cold Agglutinin Syndrome
A male with sickle cell (SS) and a female sickle cell trait (AS) have what likelihood of having a child with sickle cell anemia?
It is common to see increased RBC inclusions post splenectomy
Hypersegmentation means
Neutrophil has more than 5 lobes
An enzyme deficiency associated with a moderate to severe hemolytic anemia after the patient is exposed to certain drugs or infections and characterized by red cell inclusions formed by denatured hemoglobin is:
G6PD deficiency
In which of the following, are smudge cells usually present?
Which of the following is an abnormal protein that is is an overproduction of IgM?
Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
Reed-Sternberg cells are present in
Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Lymphocytes in CLL are
increased in number and nonfunctional
What is the cytochemical stain used to diagnosis Hairy cell leukemia?
Which disease results in an accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow?
Multiple Myeloma
What is the red cell condition known for looking like a stack of coins and caused by abnormal proteins?
Bence-Jones protein is found in the urine of patients with
Multiple Myeloma
Preleukemia, Dysmyelopoietic syndrome, Oligoblastic anemia, and Refractory anemias are all other names for what syndromes?
Myelodysplastic syndromes
All of the coagulation factors except a portion of factor VIII are produced in
The liver
A patient with classic Hemophilia A is deficient in
Factor VIII
Which lab test measures the extrinsic pathway?
Which lab test measures the intrinsic pathway?
The anticoagulant of choice for coagulation testing is (blue-top tube)
Sodium citrate
The blood–to–anticoagulant ratio for coagulation testing is
Which of the following is a normal platelet count?
The most common drug related platelet abnormality is due to
Any group of disorders in which a particular clotting factor is decreased is referred to as
The principal substrate of the coagulation and fibrinolytic system isis
Which of the following short-term anticoagulant drugs, administered by intravenous infusion, is monitored by the PTT value?
The international normalized ratio (INR) is useful in:
monitoring coumadin therapy
What is the expected Prothrombin (PT) result in a patient who is on coumadin and is stable?
26 seconds
Obstetrical complications like retained placenta or abruption placenta are a leading cause of:
A normal cerebrospinal fluid has a clear and colorless appearance.
Cerebrospinal fluids (CSF), synovial fluids, and serous fluids (pericardial, pleural and peritoneal) have cellular elements which often change in predictable patterns with disease states.
What department is the CSF tube labeled 3 routinely sent to?
A total CSF cell count on a clear fluid should be:
counted undiluted
The purpose of adding albumin to body fluids before cytocentrifugation is to:
increase the cell yield and decrease cellular distortion
Before testing, viscous synovial fluid should be treated with :
The procedure for collecting synovial fluid is called:
The procedure for collecting pleural fluid is called:
A milky-appearing pleural fluid indicates:
thoracic duct leakage or chronic inflammation
A significant cell found in pericardial or pleural fluid that should be referred to cytology is a:
mesothelioma cell
The most characteristic change seen in the peripheral smear of a patient with multiple myeloma is the presence of:
The JAK2 chromosomal mutation is associated with
Polycythemia vera
According to current WHO classification criteria, acute leukemia is characterized by which of the following?
Hypercellular bone marrow with greater than 20% blasts
_____ is predominantly a disease of children.
An autosomal disorder that manifests itself with large lysosomal inclusions, recurring infections, and albinism is
Chediak-Higashi Syndrome
The best corrective action for a patient who exhibits platelet satellitium on peripheral blood smear is to
redraw the sample in sodium citrate
Toxic vacuolization occurs most frequently in
Patients with hemophilia A or B have abnormal results in which coagulation assay?
Which of the following is the most useful in differentiating hemophilia A from hemophilia B?
Factor Assays
Infectious mononucleosis is caused by the EBV virus, which infects B lymphocytes.
In the Hematology lab, it is necessary to wear PPE in the following circumstance
When handling any specimen
The variability of events that can occur to an unknown sample before analysis
Delta Check
QC method for comparing a patient's own current results with previously verified results
reference intervals
values that have been established for a particular analyte, method, or instrument in a particular patient population.
which is a normal hemoglobin value
15 g/dL
used to monitor performance of a method after callibration
Control Materials
Primary purpose of hemoglobin
deliver oxygen
Morphological classification of anemia is determined by
Red cell indices
values outside of the reference range that need immediate action are
critical results
Which of the following tests monitors RBC production
reticulocyte count
in an adult, the usual location for obtaining a bone marrow aspirate is the
illiac crest
The proper definition of a standard is
solutions with a known amount of (fixed) analyte
the majority of iron found in an adult is found in
Heinz bodies are
unable to be seen with typical, commonly used staining methods
average lifespan of an RBC
120 days
Howell-jolly bodies are remnants of:
An early indicator of an anemic process may be
hypochromia is used to define
decrease in hemoglobin content of RBCs
An unusual finding in intravascular hemolysis is
hemoglobinuria may be present
normal adult hemoglobin consists of how many heme molecules?
Hormone responsible for RBC production
Where is EPO produced?
the kidneys
another name for orthochromic normoblast
Which settings on the microscope are used for focusing?
coarse and fine adjustments
The most important preanalytical step
Patient identification
Function of the spleen in adults
removing imperfect and old RBCs
Sickles that are able to be reoxygenated are labelled
macrocytes and hypersegmented neutrophils indicate which type of anemia?
megaloblastic anemia
Alpha thalassemia major results from
not enough functional hemoglobin A produced
Beta thalassemia major results from
no Hemoglobin A being synthesized
aplastic anemia is characterized by
pancytopenia and reticulocytopenia
What test is used to confirm a positive sickle cell screening test
Hemoglobin electrophoresis
What red cell inclusion may be present post-splenectomy
Howell-Jolly bodies
Hereditary pyropoikilocytosis is a red cell membrane defect characterized by
misshapen budding fragmented cells
Iron deficiency anemia is characterized by
decreased serum iron, decreased serum ferritin, increased TIBC
Macrocytes typically seen in megaloblastic anemias are
oval shaped
which organ is responsible for pitting RBCS
which antibody is associated with paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria
Which red cell index values are associated with megaloblastic anemias
MCV 125, MCH 30, MCHC 34%
Sickle cell trait is achieved through
heterozygous inheritance of hemoglobin S
pernicious anemia is a subset of which of these anemias?
megaloblastic anemia
Individuals with a vitamin b12 defieciency will require
life long therapy
Which hemoglobin will show crystals appearing like bars of gold?
hemoglobin C disease
Which alpha thalassemia is incompatible with life?
bart's hydrops fetalis
test of choice for hereditary spherocytosis
osmotic fragility test
Characteristic morphologic feature in folic acid deficiency is
typical cell seen in megalosblastic anemia
two parents with sickle cell trait have what % chance of having a child with sickle cell anemia
spherocytes can result from a defective membrane protein
repeated blood transfusions can cause iron overload
alpha thalassemia causes facial skeletal abnormalities
This condition has nothing to do with iron
alpha thalassemia
megaloblastic anemias have a decreased M:E ratio and shortened RBC ratio
what is true about patients with sickle cell trait
they have protection from malaria and lead normal lives
these cells cause obstructions in blood vessels, increase viscosity, and slow circulation
sickle cells
most common treatment for IDA
oral iron
rare disorder with congenital malformations
fanconi's anemia
anemia with crystals shaped like washington monument
Hemoglobin SC
two alpha gene deletion
alpha thalassemia disease
primary purpose of WBCs
defend against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and foreign substances
absolute differential count is
total WBC x 1,000 x % of cell type
Which cell is increased and has atypical forms in infectious mono
which organs are the primary site for lymphocytes
BM and thymus
The primary functions of lymphocytes are recognizing what is foreign, forming antibodies, and securing immunity
The primary function of t lymphocytes is making antibodies
Define left shift
increase in bands and metamyelocytes
exaggerated response to infection and inflammation
leukamoid reaction
in which of these circumstance do you usually see toxic granulation?
severe infection
reed-sternberg cells are present in
hodgkin's lymphoma
rare genetic disorder characterized by coarse, dark granules in all WBC types
alder-reilly anomaly
inherited disorder showing hyposegmented neutrophils
pelger-huet anomaly
four stages of WBC phagocytosis
chemotaxis, opsonization, ingestion, killing
which is a tick-borne illness
human erlichiosis
the suffic penia means
the suffix osis or philia means
in infectious mono, lymphocytes tend to be reactive and enlarged with abundant royal blue cytoplasm
When blood reacts with EDTA, causing platelets to form rings around neutrophils
platelet satellitism
Which feature distinguishes a monocyte from a lymphocyte
abundant, gray-blue cytoplasm
what statement best describes acute leukemias
a quick onset occurring at any age
acute myeloid leukemias are seen in
myeloid and monocytic cells
patients with AML have
more than 20% blasts in the bone marrow
auer rods are present in which of the following
what type of anemia is present in a patient with acute leukemia?
normocytic, normochromic
all stages of neutrophils are seen in the blood of a patient with:
Chronic granulocytic anemia
a patient with a normal WBC value, elevated platelets, increased marrow megakaryocytes, and a history of frequent bleeding and clotting episodes most likely has
polycythemia vera
what can be used to separate the initial diagnosis between acute and chronic leukemia?
cell maturity
first choice of treatment for polycythemia vera
therapeutic phlebotomy
pink staining rods seen in myeloblasts in leukemias
Auer rods
organ that holds 1/3 of total platelet volume in circulation
a low platelet count is most often anticipated when a patient demonstrates:
What are petechiae