ecology 301

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293 Terms
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net primary productivity is calculated as
GPP - respiration
units of GPP
which of the following factors is NOT used for quantifying primary productivity over time?
change in consumer biomass
Which is the portion of energy that an organism uses to maintain its body temperature?
Terrestrial NPP is greatest in _____ ecosystems, and aquatic NPP is greatest in _____ ecosystems.
tropical; coastal
Between latitudes of 30° N and 30° S, NPP is primarily constrained by
In aquatic ecosystems, trophic pyramids of biomass are inverted because
the standing biomass of algae is lower than the standing biomass of consumers
Assimilation energy is the percentage of consumed energy that is
digested and absorbed
Aquatic ecosystems typically have ¬¬¬¬¬_____ trophic levels, while terrestrial ecosystems typically have _____ trophic
5; 3-4
A trophic level has a biomass residence time of 5 years and net productivity of 3 kg/m2/y. What is the biomass in the trophic level?
15 kg/m2
Chose a logical path for a molecule of water starting and ending in the atmosphere.
precipitation, infiltration, evaporation, condensation
Which statement is TRUE about the global hydrologic cycle?- Precipitation is greater than evaporation in terrestrial ecosystems.
Precipitation and evaporation are about equal in terrestrial ecosystems
In waterlogged conditions, anaerobic metabolism of carbon compounds can cause the production of the greenhouse gas
methane (CH4)
Nitrogen-fixing plants such as soybeans are able to convert
atmospheric nitrogen to nitrate and ammonium
Which is NOT an example of a major human alteration to the global nitrogen cycle?
Animal waste from agriculture
Dead zones are formed when rivers that empty into oceans carry excess phosphorus and nitrate runoff. These dead zones are caused by
algal blooms
Which of the following does NOT significantly affect terrestrial decomposition rates?
phosphorus content of litter
Decomposition is more rapid in _____ forests because of _____.
tropical; increased temperature and precipitation
In the study of leaf decomposition in a stream in Germany using leaf litter enclosed in either fine- or large-mesh bags, researchers found that decomposition was strongly affected by
invertebrates and lignin content
which is not an adaptation to low oxygen aquatic environment
increased metabolic activity
Match adaptation to benefit prevent loss of leaf tissue produce boundary layer of still air able to take up water after brief rainfall protect plants from slow water loss
small leaves with high density veins; spines and hairs; shalllow roots; resin
a fish that has tissue solute concentrations that are higher than surround waters
is hyperosmotic; trying to not drink the environmental water in attempt to maintain internal water concentrations
photosynthesis occurs in two steps known as ___ and the ____
light; calvin
why are both CO2 and O2 limited in aquatic environments?
not very soluble in water
a smallmouth bass swimming in cold water of a springtime lake would likely expend ______ energy than when swimming in warmer water of lake during the summer
the temp that water reaches maxx density
4 degree Celsius
rate of biological processes increases two to four times for each ___ increase in temp
10 deg C
fish obtain oxygen from the water through their gills using
countercurrent circulation
which photosynthsis method is best suited to warm dry environment
C4 fixation and CAM
aquatic organisms have developed streamline shapes to adapt to the
viscosity of water
a plant with high number of stomata
high rate of transpiration
the low density of ice
allows aquatic plants to survive the winter
primary cause of coral bleaching
increased water temperature
waters polar nature
makes it a good solvent
T/F adding dissolved compounds such as salt to water increases the boiling point and inc freezing point
anaerobic condition
more common in deep water than shallow
spotted salamanders lay eggs in gelatinous masses on twigs partially submerged in small ponds. associated with the eggs scientists have found mutualistic relationship with the developing eggs. what benefit does the salamander recieve from this relationship
salamander embryos recieve increased oxygen supply
which does not limit the ability of aquatic plants to photosynthesize
high levels of carbonic acid
which is not a true statement
all ectotherms are poikilotherms
which of the following is not a part of carbon equilibrium in water
availability of soil nutrients varies with
presence other ions soil temp pH
photosynthesis primarily allows plants to produce
which is not an adaptation that exploits the density of water
long, filamentous appendages
a liquid with low pH would have a ___ H+ concentration and would be called
high ; acidic
T/F: energy benefit of resource item/ handling time = amount of energy gained per unit time
T/F: some foragers consume a singular food type as a diet mixing foraging response because one type of food will provide all the necessary nutrients
changes in ____ and _____ are often relatively slow phenotypic responses
morphology; life history
this figure shows the tail shape developed by 3 tadpole genotypes (M,N,O) when raised in an environment with predators and an environment without predators. in the presence of predators, tadpoles with large tails have high fitness and tadpoles with small tails have low fitness. when predators arent present tadpoles with large tails have low fitness and tadpoles with small tails have high fitness. which genotypes exhibit phenotypic plasticity in response to predators
O only
when the protist Euplotes detects predators, it grows wings and other projections to discourage predators. however developing the projections and wings slows down growth is an example of
phenotypic tradeoffs; phenotypic plasticity
based on the central place foraging theory and the figure, identify the optimal # prey for forarger to catch
8 prey
in response to a specific type of environmental variation, the Burmese phython can drastically increase the size of its heart and length of intestines in fewer than 2 days. what environmental variation causes this drastic change
variation in availability of food
T/F: slow environmental fluctuations favor slow phenotypic responses, whereas rapid fluctuations favor rapid phenotypic responses
If a goldfish is acclimated at 25°C, at which temperature would we expect the fish to swim fastest?
25 deg C
which of the following are phenotypically plastic responses of plants to reduced water availability
close stomata in leaves; increase the root/shoot ratio
Consider a mouse that can forage in one of two fields. The south field has three times more seeds than the north field. However, an owl (a predator that eats mice) lives at the south field. The mouse forages in the north field despite the fact that it contains less food. This is an example of:
risk sensitive foraging
since resources vary in ____ and ___ no single foraging strategy can maximize an animals fitness
space and time
different species of birds found feeding in different parts of same forest canopy at the same time may be an example of
microhabitat differences
the average annual rainfall measured in a desert over 10 years is which type of variation
consider the figure, which shows how Virginia pepperweed responds to herbivores. which of the following conclusions can we make soley using the data
plants increased glucosinolate production when aphids were present and plants with more glucosinolate and trichomes had fewer aphids
which of the following is an example of weather
A single location received 10 cm of snow on January 1, 2011, but no snow on January 2, 2011
what is the risk to a species of inbreeding depression?
an increased likelihood of deleterious genes being inherited from both egg and sperm
When humans move from low elevations to high elevations, it typically takes one or more weeks for their bodies to improve their ability to carry oxygen. This is an example of
a scientist is studying a bird that forages for worms and takes them back to their nest. if the relation between search time and the # prey caught remains constant but the scientist moves the food closer, what change in the birds beahvior would central place foraging predict?
fewer worms would be brought back per trip
a preadtor should always eat the prey species that provides the highest amount of energy gained per unit time ... this is for the ______ response to food variation
the figure shows plant growth responses to variation in availibity of water. if this is an example of adaptive phenotypic plasticity how would we expect the root to shoot ratio be related to fitness
when water is scarce plants wit high root to shoot ratios have higher fitness
Many types of traits are plastic, such as
behavior, growth, development, and reproduction
match the dormancy type to its defintion and/or example chipmunks shutting down of metabolic processes during summer in responses to heat crocodiles west indian hummingbird complete physiological shutdown brief period of dormancy in which individuals reduce activity
hibernation aestivation aestivation torpor diapause torpor
what is not a reason why cold regions with high rainfall are rare
water doesnt evaporate at high temps, cold atmosphere holds lots of water vapor
albedo is the fraction of solar energy reflected by an object. Forests have a ____ albedo and snow has a ____ albedo
low; high
which of the following does not drive ocean currents
continental water sources
As a river flows downstream, it generally
has more nutrients
Manure from a farming operation that enters into a stream would be considered
In areas with significant leaching, which soil horizon would be largest?
Compared to coastal regions, the interior of a continent usually has _____ precipitation and ______ variation in climate.
less; more
In which aquatic environment are organisms most likely to produce bioluminescence?
aphotic zones
an important characteristic of a stream is
high allochthonous input
The aphotic zone is a feature in
open ocean
The energy of incident solar radiation reaching the surface of Earth declines toward the poles from its maximum in equatorial regions. Why is this?
the tilt of earth increases the reflection of solar radiation
which of the following is the most likely reason a soil would not have an O horizon
soil is in a desert
Oceans and lakes cover ___ % in Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern Hemisphere. Therefore ______ rain falls in the Northern Hemisphere
lower; less
based on the image below, identify the latent heat movement. A is representing of _____ and B is representing of ______
absorbed and released
which is a unique characteristic of estuaries
mixing of fresh and salt water
which of the following is used to distinguish aquatic biomes
salinity depth flow
many factors create ocean currents. some factors are
unequal heating; salinity; coriolis effect; wind directions
What kind of oceanic circulation would you predict for the western coasts of continents?
cold currents moving from poles toward equator
plant growth and its growing season can be constrained by _____ and ______
temperature and precipitation
which combination of factors causes the fastest nutrient cycling in a biome
high precipitation and high temperatures
ocean zone with the highest productivity is the
neritic zone
Thermohaline circulation is driven by:
sinking polar water with high salinity
a symbiotic relationship with algae is central to
coral reefs
Lakes are generally divided into zones, each of which has unique physical and biological attributes. In which zone would you expect to find rooted vegetation?
in which lake zone would photosynthesis not occur
profundal zones
here is a table of 4 populations of dragons with allele frequencies that relate to breathing fire over 10 years, which of the populations evolved?
populations 2, 3
Body size is a heritable trait in the amphipod, an aquatic crustacean. Fish preferentially consume large amphipods, leaving primarily small amphipods to breed. Based on these observations, how would we expect evolution to affect ponds with and without fish?
ponds with fish should have smaller amphpods
shown below are pictures of Arabidopsis spp. which typically has 4 flowers as in the picture on the left. the picture on the right represents a flower from an organism where a change occured inthe nucleotide sequence of the sex cells of its parents. this example represents the mechanism of evolution called _______
Consider a gene that affects fur color in mice. This gene has two alleles, A and a. If AA mice have white fur, Aa mice have gray fur, and aa mice have black fur, how would we describe the effect of these alleles?
A and a are codominant
When a parental generation undergoes stabilizing selection, how will the distribution of phenotypes in the population change between the parental generation and their progeny?
mean phenotype stays the same, but variability decreases
what process creates new alleles in a population
Evolution by artificial selection is similar to evolution by natural selection because I. both require traits to be heritable. II. both incorporate founder effects. III. both generate differences in fitness between individuals.
based on the phylogeny in the figure, which group is most closely related to reptiles
based on the phylogeny in the figure, which traits are shared by bony fishes and amphibians
jaws and bony skeleton
The drastic phenotypic differences between large dogs, such as bloodhounds, and small dogs, such as Chihuahuas, are a result of
artificial selection
If a population of butterflies is under strong natural selection favoring large wings but there is no genetic variation for wing size, what do we expect to occur in the next generation?
no evolutionary change in wing size
shown here is a picture of an island with a species of ladybug that comes in two colors yellow and red. ladybugs arent strong enough to fly to new island but thers a large storm that blows several ladybugs onto new island. ladybugs on new island are all red while inital population had some yellow ones, the mechanism for this evolutionary change is
genetic drift
which of the following types of allele would we expect to have the lowest frequency in population
harmful dominant allele
Which is a prediction of the hypothesis that predation caused industrial melanism?
birds more frequently capture dark moths on light trees than those on dark trees
consider three populations of plant species each of which is isolated from other. population x has 100 individuals, population y had 10,000 and population z had 1 million. if the enviroment changed and a new environemntal condition exerted the exact same stregnth of directional selection on all 3 populations which population would be expect to evolve most rapidly
population Z
consider a situation in which overharvesting causes the # fish in population to become drastically smaller which causes genetic variation in that fish to decrease over a few generations . this is an example of
bottleneck effect
based on the phylogeny of the Galapagos finches, which statement is correct
ancestor of small tree finch and large tree finch probably ate insects
stickleback fish exhibit variation in morphological trait known as gillrakers. fish with long gillrakers are very good at eating plankton and fish with short gill rakers are good at eating deep water invertebrates. with this info what type of selection is likely acting on stickleback gill raker legnth
disruptive selection
requirements for evolution by natural selection
1. There must be variation among individuals of a species. 2. This variation must be heritable. 3. This variation must lead to differential reproduction.
match: allele whose phenotypic effect is not typically observed in a heterozygote; the observable physical and physiological traits of an organism which are determined by its genetic makeup ; any of the alternative versions of a gene may produce a distinguishable phenotypic effects; having 2 identical alleles for given gene ; cellular structure carrying genetic material that consists of 1 very long dna molecule; discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of specific nucleotide sequence of dna
recessive phenotype allele homozygous chromosome gene
which is/are correct of founder effect
founder effect occurs when individuals are transported to new location founder effect may see further reduction in genetic variation
which of the following is/are correct
consider three populations of plant species each of which is isolated from other. population x has 100 individuals, population y had 10,000 and population z had 1 million. if genetic drift is the only evolutionary process acting on these populations how can we expect the amount of genetic variation to differ
X will have the lowest variation, Y will have intermediate
an organism at times mates by outcrossing and other times mates by self fertilization. what is the least likely environmental variable the organism is responding too
changes in daily temperature profile
Grime proposed that combinations of life history traits in plants are mainly determined by three factors. Which is NOT one of these factors? competition, stress, disturbance, herbivory
The image below is an example of a _______________ dependent sex determination
Some marine snails (species L) produce large numbers of small eggs that are shed into the sea, hatch at an early stage of development, and feed on microscopic plants. Other marine snails (species S) produce few eggs that are retained for a long time within the body of the mother snail in a brood pouch, hatch at an advanced stage of development, and immediately begin to feed on the surfaces of large plants like the adults. A biologist discovers approximately equal numbers of adults of species L and S in the same area over many generations. While studying the two species of snails, the biologist hypothesizes that the two species expend approximately the same amount of energy producing young. What assumption is the biologist making?
an egg of species S contains more energy than egg species L
Some marine snails (species L) produce large numbers of small eggs that are shed into the sea, hatch at an early stage of development, and feed on microscopic plants. Other marine snails (species S) produce few eggs that are retained for a long time within the body of the mother snail in a brood pouch, hatch at an advanced stage of development, and immediately begin to feed on the surfaces of large plants like the adults. A biologist discovers approximately equal numbers of adults of species L and S in the same area over many generations. which of the following is most likely
young that parents care for until they reach a more advanced stage
having a large number of offspring potentially affects a parents fitness for subsequent breeding seasons . which of the following outcomes is least likely
competition with offspring for food could reduce energy for future reproduction
Research on frogs has shown that compared to well-nourished counterparts, poorly nourished frogs mature
somewhat later age and at a somewhat smaller size
which statement best describes the cost of meiosis
Females pass on only 50% of their DNA through sexual reproduction rather than 100% through asexual reproduction
in most species, what process is responsible for sex ratios of approximately one to one?
frequency dependent selection
When adults have a high probability of survival from one year to the next and offspring survival is relatively poor, the best strategy for an adult to maximize fitness is to
increase survival at the expense of fecundity
A peacock is significantly more colorful than a peahen and has a much larger tail. These traits allow the peacock to attract a mate but also make the peacock more visible to predators. This is an example of
runaway sexual selection
In some perfect flowers, the receptiveness of the stigma is delayed until after its anthers have released pollen. This delay prevents
self fertilization
sexual reproduction is costly because it requires ___, ____ and there is an increase risk of herbivory, predation and parasitism when finding mates
time energy or resources
which is not a benefit of extra-pair copulation
increased fitness of monogamous male due to less energy expended on reproduction
Reproductive trade-offs that an organism might face include all of the following except
the costs of hibernation during the nonbreeding season versus the costs of migration
Which panel best illustrates the most direct effect of predation?
research using dna analysis has shown that with most bird species, the eggs within a nest being incubated at the same time may be the product of a single female and more than one male. this is finding evidence of
extra pair copulation
migratory birds are likely responding to what environmental cue to initiate the behavior leading to migration from the northern breeding grounds to their more southern overwintering areas?
changes in day length as seasons change
there are multiple benefits to undergoing sexual reproduction. these include removing ___ and having the ability to cope with ___, ____, ___
mutations, environment, pathogen, parasite
which variable best summarizes the response to increased predation mortality for adults and suggest that putting more energy into reproduction provides an improved fitness benefit?
offspring volume
which of the following is not a mechanism by which organism can purge deleterious mutations?
random assortment in mitosis
which of the following isnt a potential benefit of increased resource availability
reduced predation risk
Consider a species with a fast potential growth rate, reproduction at a relatively early age, allocation of a small proportion of net production to seeds, and reliance on vegetative spread. According to Grime's classification of life history traits, this species fits the profile of a
all of the following are benefits of sexual reproduction except that
offspring are likley to have greater resources for reproduction than aseuxally produced offspring
Fig wasp populations contain a high proportion of females to males because of local mate competition. This occurs because
large number of females can mate with a single mate
Consider the time series of population sizes in years 1 and 2 for populations a, b, c, and d. If the population size in year 3 is determined by a logistic model with delayed density dependence from a 1-year time lag (i.e., τ = 1), r = 1, and K = 10 individuals, which of the following time series of population sizes would lead to an overshoot of the carrying capacity in year 3?
year 1- 5 individuals
year 2- 10 individuals
which of the following statements about the logistic growth model is accurate?
which of the following are characteristics of a source subpopulation
high quality habitat, high level of resources, high emigration rate
For 5 years, a biologist studied a population of mice living in a field. The mice have 3 age classes; 1 year old, 2 years old, 3 years old. The number of individuals in each age class over the course of the study is shown in the table. The geometric mean growth from year 1 to year 2 is
which describes the figure of logistic population growth shown in the graph
r >0 , K < 300
A biologist is developing models to describe the population dynamics of the species he studies. Four models are listed. Each model is based on the logistic model, with r equal to 1 and K equal to 100. The initial population size is given by N0. In which of his models of population growth would the population be most likely to go extinct?
stochastic model, N0= 10
human activity can affect metapopulations. in the basic model of metapopulation dynamics, if humans improve habitat quality of subpopulations, the probability of extinction ____ and the proportion of occupied patches _____
decreases; increases
the following table shows the survival and fecundity of a flowering plant
For 5 years, a biologist studied a population of mice living in a field. The mice have 3 age classes; 1 year old, 2 years old, 3 years old. The number of individuals in each age class over the course of the study is shown in the table. which describes this population
Under the basic model of metapopulation dynamics, which of the following conditions is necessary to prevent the species from going extinct?
colonization rate greater than extinction rate
which conclusion does figure support
White pine may have had decreased recruitment since 1650
which is true about damped oscillations
they are expected to occur when rt= 1
an age structure graph that appears rectangular in overall shape would likely see what in the future
no change in population size
which panel is most likely to indicate a population with a constant environment and no time delays in density dependent
which correctly describes metapopulation
Consider four populations of island birds. Each island has a different carrying capacity, and the birds are subject to environmental and demographic stochasticity. Which population is LEAST likely to go extinct?
island 4, K= 1,200
in the logistic growth model under which condition is the per capita rate of increase the highest
N= k/4
which is an example of the rescue effect
II. A population of mice in a low-quality habitat persists because of immigration from high-quality habitats.
which reflects negative density dependence
I and II (A fungus infects and kills plants at a higher rate when they are abundant than when they are rare AND a group of birds has a higher per capita survival rate when it is large than when it is small)
Consider a biologist studying a population of deer. At the beginning of the year, there are 100 adult deer in the population. Over the course of the year, 15 adult deer die, and an additional 25 deer are born. What can we conclude about λ for this year?
lambda > 1
consider a population with the following numbers of individuals over time year 1:10 ; year 2:25 ; year 3:30 ; if the population size in year 4 is determined by a logistic model with a delayed density depedence from a 1yr time lag
r= 2.0
which of the following is most likely to explain why Daphnia exhibits greater oscillations in population size than Bosmina
Daphina exhibits delayed density dependence, Bosmina does not
which is likely to follow an exponential increase in population size
A biologist grew 10 groups of flowers in 1-square-meter plots of soil. In five plots, the biologist planted 20 flowers, and in the other five plots, the biologist planted 100 flowers. At the end of the summer, the biologist counted the seeds that each flower produced and found 100 seeds per plant in the plot with 20 plants and 500 seeds per plant in the plot with 100 plants. This is an example of
positive density dependent population regulation
which is the most accurate statement about the conservation biology of species with positive density dependent population regulation
if the population is small, it may not be able to increase
what was the main factor that led to declines in collared lizards populations in the Ozark mountains of Missouri
suppression of forest fires decreased the open habitat that collared lizards require
Based on fitness effects on donors and recipients, which type of social interaction is expected to occur LEAST often?
match movement is seasonal movement is permanent movement is unidirectional movement is to colonize new habitat movement is back and forth between 2 areas
migration dispersal dispersal dispersal migration
in the wattled Jacana a species of tropical wading bird, males perform all brood care. females protect nests and defend territory. females sometimes attack and kill chicks cared for by a male. the male then fertilizers the female attacker and cares for the resulting young. this type of social interaction that sees one female killing the young producers. another female so as to be fertilized by the male caring for the orginial brood is an example of ____
An endangered frog species lives in only a few forest patches found throughout the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The Pacific Northwest is its _____ and the forest patches are its _____.
geographic range ; realized niche
Based on the coefficient of relatedness, to which of the following relatives would a donor be most likely to provide altruism?
full sibling
given information 245 rabbits later 46 are captured, 23 already marked based on this mark and recapture data we can estimate the population size to be about ____ rabbits
chronic wasting disease is of particular concern on deer farms where it can spread much faster than among wild deer. Why might that be the case?
deer on farms are in large numbers and in close proximity and thus disease can spread more rapidly
According to an ideal free distribution, individual organisms would be expected to move into low-quality habitat
the per capita benefit of the low quality habitat equals the per capita benefit of the high quality habitat
which of the following does not explain why an ideal free distribution might not be achieved in nature
individuals may not be able to differentiate between high and low quality habitat
you are studying flocks of european starlings. you notice that flock size varies quiet a bit from just a few individuals to hundreds within the same flock. what might you expect when observing starling feeding behavior in open fields and lawns between individuals in the small flocks and those in the large flocks.
individual in small flocks spend more time looking for predators
in the experiment in which stickleback fish were presented with high and low quality habitats why would fish disperse from high food side of aquarium to low food side
the low food side per capita benefit equaled the high food side
Group living _____ individual risk of predation and _____ the predation risk of the group.?
decrease ; increase
in a hardy weinburg population with two alleles, A and a, the frequency of a is .3 . what is the frequency of individuals with homozygous for this allele?
there are several spatial structure models please list them in order of decreasing complexity
landscape models, source sink models, metapopulation models
which is not true about the social interaction termed cooperation
it is less common than spitefulness in wild animal population
Methods such as area-based, volume-based, and line-transect surveys would be best for estimations of _____ populations.
evenly spaced
which is/are true about territoriality
when a resource can be defended; when the benefits of defending a resource outweigh the costs during nonbreeding season
what factors drive the relationship between population density and adult body size
space and resources
432 fish are captured tagged and released. 124 fish are captured and 31 were already marked . based on the data we can estimate the population size to be about _____
increased competition for food among individuals living in groups may lead to an increase in all the following except
time spent in parental care of offspring
which is not true about a species geographic range
geographic area is contiguous
as a result of group living, an individual living in a group might
have a higher rate of consumption
which type of plant is most likely to exhibit altruistic social behaviors?
clonal species that reproduce through vegetative growth
plants that grow by vegetative reproduction likely will have the ___ type of dispersion pattern
a type ____ functional response occurs when a predators rate of prey consumption increases linerly with increasing prey
many organisms that employ chemical defenses also display
in S-I-R models if the new ratio of new infections to recoveries is less than 1
the infection fails to take hold in the host population
On Macquarie Island invasive rabbits were causing declines in palatable vegetation, and feral cats were preying on native birds. What was the primary result whena flea carrying a virus that killed the rabbitsdecreased rabbits' numbers on the island?
feral cats were switched from eating rabbits to eating native birds
Vaccinations slow or stop the spread of diseases by
reducing the size of susceptible population
the bacterium that causes chlamydia in humans can be transmitted from mother to fetus by ___ transmission or between any two individuals by ___transmission
vertical; horizontal
what happens to prey population when P < r/c what happens when the predator population experiences V m/ac what happens to the prey population when P > r/c
increases decreases increases decreases
in S-I-R models which of the following doesnt determine the proportion of SIR individuals in a population
recovery of infected individuals
diseases such as HIV and African sleeping sickness can avoid the hosts immune system by
making themselves undetectable
according to Lotka-Volterra what information was required to calculate the change in population size of the prey over time
how efficient the predator was in capturing the prey
based on the image below, match the # with the letter for each textbox 1. is representive of ___ 2. ___ 3 ____ 4 ___ E _____
D C A B joint equilibrium
Reduction in virulence of myxomatosis in rabbits in Australia in the second outbreak was a result of
Lotka-Volterra Models of predator-prey interactions show that
predator populations lag behind prey populations
which of the following strategies do schistomes use to circumvent the hosts immune system
produce a protective layer around their bodies that prevents them from being detected by host immune system
According to Lotka-Volterra what information was required to calculate the change in population size of the predator over time
efficency rate of converting prey consumed into predator offspring
based on the image below, predators exhibit a _____ functional response