facts TO KNOW for final

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terms and concepts that i starred in my notes bc prof told us we need to know

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plural fluid
clear fluid that minimizes friction between the tissues and provides surface tension in pleural cavity
chemical substance secreted by lungs to facilitate surface tension (prevents collapse of alveoli)
tidal volume (TV)
amount of air moving in and out of the lungs during normal breathing - average = 500 ml
inspiration reserve volume (IRV)
amount of air that can be inhaled after normal inspiration - average = 3000 ml - calculated IRV = IC - TV
expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
amount of air that can be exhaled after normal expiration - average - 1100 ml
inspiratory capacity (IC)
total amount of air that can be inhaled - average = 4000 ml - calculated IC = VC - ERV
vital capacity (VC)
total amount of air that can be exhaled - average = 5000 ml - calculated VC = TV + IRV + ERV
residual volume (RV)
amount of air that is always left in the lungs after expiration - average = 1200
total lung capacity (TLC)
total amount of air that the lungs contain, including residual volume - average = 6000 ml - calculated TLC = VC + RV
anatomic dead space
amount of air remain in the bronchial tree that is not involved in gas exchange due to obstruction of air flow/damage to bronchial tree
physiologic dead space
total amount of air in the lungs that is not involved in gas exchange (i.e. anatomic dead space + alveolar dead space)
4 major factors that affect normal breathing...
- stretching in the lungs and thoracic walls - O2 levels in blood - CO2 levels in blood - H+ levels in blood
The respiratory centers is made up of the...
pons and medulla oblogata
pulmonary capillaries
high to low (O2 enters/ CO2 enters alveoli)
systemic capillaries
high to low (O2 enters tissues/ CO2 enters capillary)
main factors that can shift the O2-Hb dissociation curve...
- O2 pressure - CO2 pressure - pH of blood - body temp
____ in O2 pressure shifts curve to the right.
____ in CO2 pressure shifts curve to the right
____ shifts the curve to the right
more acidic
increase in ___ shifts the curve to the right
body temperature
moist lump of food particles and saliva created from mastication for easier passage into pharynx
Name the 4 types of teeth...
- incisors - canines - premolars - molars
function of incisors
function of incisors
function of premolars
function of molars
enzyme that digests carbohydrates
What are the 4 gastric secretory cells?
- chief cells - parietal cells - mucous cells - G cells
chief cells
secrete pepsinogen
parietal cells
secrete HCl and intrinsic factor
mucous cells
secrete mucus and alkaline substances to help neutralize HCl in gastric juice
G cells
secrete gastrin which stimulates the parietal cells and overall gastric secretion
gastrin hormone
stimulates the gastric glands for more activities
intestinal gastrin
hormone that inhibits other gastric activities
hormone that inhibits gastric acid secretion in response to fat in chyme
activated by enterkinase into trypsin which activates 3 other enzymes
Name the 2 duodenal hormones that influence pancreatic secretion
- secretin - cholecystokinin
stimulates the secretion of pancreatic electrolyte - rich fluid
- released by intestinal wall cells - enhances the enzymatic secretions of the pancreas
peritubular capillaries
same as vasa recta, found around nephron
What are the 4 forces of filtration?
- glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure - capsular osmotic pressure - capsular hydrostatic pressure - glomerular capillary osmotic pressure
afferent arteriole
brings blood to the glomerulus to be filtered (GFR drops when constricted)
efferent arteriole of glomerulus
brings filtered blood out of the glomerulus (GFR will increase when constricted?)
preritubular capillary
capillaries that surround tubule, adapted for reabsorption
large white blood cells (leukocytes) that are present in urine, cause by glomerulus's nephritis, UTI, or strenuous exercise
intracellular fluid
- 25 L of fluids (63%) are located inside body cells - mostly water and rich in K+, Mg++, HPO4-2, SO4-2, and protein anions
extracellular fluid
- 15 L of fluids (37%) are located outside of body cells - contains more Na+, Cl-, HCO3-, and Ca++
Most water is absorbed in the ___
large intestines
Most important electrolytes
Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca++, HPO42-
Na+ (electrolyte)
most abundant extracellular cation
Cl- (electrolyte)
major extracellular anion
K+ (electrolyte)
most abundant cation
most abundant ion
important intracellular anion
chemical buffer system
acts rapidly, first line of defense against pH shift
physiological buffer
acts slowly, second line of defense against pH shift
respiratory acidosis
due to deficiency of CO2 expiration
respiratory alkalosis
due to abnormally high CO2 expiration
acid-base buffer systems
prevents rapid, drastic changes in body fluid pH
secondary messenger
product of cascade reactions, usually cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cAMP
nontropic hormones
hormones that are secreted by endocrine glands and travel to target cells directly
tropic hormones
hormones that are secreted by an endocrine gland and travels to another endocrine gland, causing the second gland to secrete another hormone
5 types of glandular cells
- somatotrophs - lactotrophs - corticotrophs - thyrotrophs - gonadotrophs
produce GH
produce PRL
produce ACTH and MSH
produce TSH
produce FSH and LH
lutheinizing hormone (LH)
triggers ovulation and stimulates the production of estrogens and progesterone in female, and promotes testosterone production in male
growth hormone is secreted by...
anterior pituitary
releasing hormone is from...
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
stimulates production of egg cells and sperm in the gonads
placenta produces estrogen and progesterone...
after 1st trimester
cholecytokinin (CCK)
secreted by small intestine to stimulate gallbladder activities
corpus luteum produces estrogen and progesterone...
during 1st trimester


means “giving birth”

seminal vesicles

secrete an alkaline solution that makes up 60% of semen volume

Dilation of the vagina is a ___ response in both male and female.


Orgasm in a ___ response in both male and female.


corpus luteum

maintains pregnancy


a single diploid cell