Rational Numbers Unit Flashcards

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16 Terms
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Absolute Value
The distance a number is away from zero
Distance vs. Change
Distance is always positive To find: Find absolute value of difference (#'s can be in any order) *OR* Subtracting the smaller # from the larger # ____________________________________ Change in elevation/temperature may be pos. or neg. depending on if it's increasing or decreasing (going up or down) Find just like distance, but pos. or neg. answer depending on direction
Commutative Property (addition and multiplication only)
You can swap numbers around and still get the same answer (Only for all adding or all multiplying) **Order does not matter ** Examples: -5 + 3 = 3 + -5 (4)(2) = (2)(4)
Associative Property (addition and multiplication only)
It doesn't matter how we group the numbers (i.e. which we calculate first) You will still get the same answer. (Only for all adding or all multiplying) Examples: (3 + 4) + 5 = 3 + (4 + 5) (3 x 4) x 5 = 3 x (4 x 5)
Distributive Property
The distributive property: we get the same answer when we: added first, then multiply 5(1 + 3) = 5(4)= 20 **OR** multiply each separately then add them 5(1 + 3) = 5(1) + 5(3) = 5 + 15 = 20
Identity Property of Addition
Adding zero to a number leaves it unchanged Example: -4 + 0 = -4
Identity Property of Multiplication
Multiplying a number by one leaves the number unchanged Example: 3(1) = 3
Inverse Property of Addition
What you add to a number to get zero. Example: The additive inverse of -5 is 5 because -5 + 5 = 0. The additive inverse will be the opposite sign.
Inverse Property of Multiplication
"When you multiply a number by its Multiplicative Inverse you get 1. Example: 8 x (1/8) = 1 The multiplicative inverse is also called the reciprocal.
How do you change a decimal to a fraction?
1) Place the digits you see in the numerator 2) The denominator will be the place value that the last digit is in 3) Simplify Example: 0.015 = 15/1000 = 3/200
How do you change a fraction to a decimal?
You can always divide the numerator (top) by the denominator (bottom) **Remember:** numerator goes in the house AND numerator goes in calculator first OR: Change the denominator to a power of ten. (This will not always work)
Adding and Subtracting Fractions
You MUST have a common denominator before you add or subtract fractions Follow rules for rational numbers once denominators are the same
Multiplying Fractions
***Don't get a common denominator*** 1) Simplify a numerator with a denominator if you can 2) Multiply numerators together, then multiply denominators 3) Simplify the fraction if you can
Dividing Fractions
Remember: Dividing is the same as multiplying by the reciprocal 1) Change the division to multiplication 2) Flip the second fraction over 3) Follow the rules for multiplying fractions
Even/Odd Rule of Multiplication
If there are an even number of negative signs, the product will be positive. Ex. -2 x -3 x -4 x -5 = 120 If there are an odd number of negative signs, the product will be negative. Ex. -2 x -3 x -4 = -24
Order of Operations
MUST be followed when multiple operations are in an expression. Following the Order of Operations: Remember it with *PEMDAS* 1st *P*arentheses and brackets 2nd *E*xponents 3rd *M*ultiply or *D*ivide from left to right 4th *A*dd or *S*ubtract from left to right