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Abnormal Psychology 3082 Exam 1 Gros

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Abnormal behavior
psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not typical of culturally expected
Impairment
symptoms of a psychological disorder that limits one or more major factors of life
Distress
painful mental and physical symptoms that are associated with normal fluctuations of mood in most people
Dysfunction
Abnormal, cognitive, emotions, or behavioral functioning
Psychologist
trained in research and delivering treatment
Psychiatrist
medical degree, diagnose, emphasize drugs and other biological treatments.
Social worker
deal with family situation of those with psychological disorders and concentrate on family problems
Presenting problem
symptoms, reason for patient making an appointment
Discrimination
distinguish between clinically significant dysfunction from common human experience
Incidence
# of cases over a period of time (i.e. per year)
Prevalence
# of people in a population that have the disorder
Onset
The age at which symptoms of a disorder or disease begin to appear. acute (suddenly) or insidious (gradual)
Course
episodic (episodes), time-limited, chronic
Etiology
The cause/progress of a disease or disorder. Triggers the development of psychopathology
Prognosis
The likely outlook or course of a disease. Good means good chance of treatment success. Guarded means not having enough info to say what the outcome will be
Freud
had theories of unconscious conflict, catharsis, id, superego, ego (structure of the mind)
Psychoanalytical theory
the role of the unconscious drives, such as related to sex and power as well as the important of early life experience
Defense mechanisms
Protect us from being conscious or aware of a thought or feeling that we cannot tolerate, so you express this unconscious thought indirectly in a disguised form. The ego's attempt to manage id/superego conflict
Displacement
You redirect emotions from one person or thing to another (kicking squirrel because you're mad at school)
Reaction formation
You turn your feelings into the opposite because it's more acceptable (fake it till you make it)
Projection
You think someone else has your thoughts or feelings (wife who has feelings for male-coworker gets jealous over husband mentioning female co-worker)
Sublimate
You redirect emotions into something productive (I am going to write a poem about anger. Workout, clean, and healthy stuff)
Oral
pleasure from oral activities like sucking and tasting
Anal
ability to control bladder and bowels. Potty training
Phallic
boys more attached to their moms, girls more attached to their dads
Latency
acquiring skills and interacting with same sex peers
Genital
attracted to opposite sex
Free association
talking freely without direction in hope you'll reveal your unconscious
Dream analysis
your dreams are an indication of what is going on in your subconscious
Dix
mental hygiene movement
Galen
biological tradition
Humoral theory
there are bodily fluids called "humors" that control chemical balances in the body. too much black bile = depression
Kraepelin
this person believed in biological tradition. believed that Psychological disorders are basically biological disturbances and have a unique age of onset, symptoms, and causes
Kraeplin
First to identify schizophrenia
Operant conditioning
people learning to repeat or decrease behaviors based on the consequences
Positive reinforcement
when learner is GIVEN something when behavior occurs
Negative reinforcement
when learner has something TAKEN when behavior occurs
Skinner
behavioral therapy through operant conditioning
Pinel
patients should not be restrained.
Id
illogical, emotional, impulsive "I need to now" (devil on shoulder)
Superego
morals "it's wrong", (angel on shoulder)
Ego
rational, logic, reality "chill out we got this" (solves conflict between ID and Superego)
Conscious
aware. What we know
Preconscious
almost aware
Unconscious
not aware
Classical conditioning
learning where a neutral stimulus is paired with a response until it elicits that response
Unconditioned Stimulus
stimulus that leads to an automatic response
Unconditioned Response
automatic response to stimuli
Conditioned Stimulus
eventually triggers a conditioned response
Conditioned Response
automatic response established by training
Supernatural
caused by demon possession, witchcraft etc...
Behavioral model
classical and operant conditioning
Biological
physical disease (Hippocrates)
Humoral theory
there are fluids called humors that control chemicals. ex: blood, phlegm, black and yellow bile
Galenic-Hippocratic functioning
related to having too much or too little key bodily fluids
Biopsychosocial model
Interaction between biological factors, psychological factors, and social factors
Dominant genes
always going to show up
Recessive genes
must be paired with another recessive gene to show
Diatheses-stress model
when someone has a genetic predisposition for a certain disorder and a stressor will trigger it .
Neuron
process everything from feelings, to movement, to behaviors. They communicate with each other through branches and trunks
Soma
cell body
Dendrites
branches that receive messages from other neurons
Axon
trunk of neuron that sends messages to other neurons
Axon terminals
buds at the end of axon from which chemical messages are sent
Synapses
small gaps that separate neurons
Serotonin
neurotransmitter related to mood. low = depressed
GABA
neurotransmitter related to behavior and emotion. low = anxiety
Norepinephrine
similar to adrenaline (fight or flight); fear, alarm reaction
Dopamine
pleasure seeking behaviors; Schizophrenia, Parkinson's and other behaviors and thought processes. high = schizophrenic behaviors
Reuptake
reabsorption by a neuron of a neurotransmitter following the transmission of a nerve impulse across a synapse
Agonist
increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by mimicking its effects
Antagonist
inhibits or blocks the production of neurotransmitters or functions indirectly to prevent the chemical from reaching the next neuron by closing or occupying the receptors
inverse agonist
produce effects opposite to a given neurotransmitter. Psych drugs are usually either antagonists or agonists
Sympathetic nervous system
readies the body for the fight or flight.
Parasympathetic nervous system
control activities during rest or conservation of energy
Frontal lobe
thinking, reasoning, memory
Parietal lobe
this lobe is responsible for touch recognition
Occipital lobe
integrates visual input
Temporal lobe
sights, sounds, long term memory
Thalamus
relays sensory and motor signals, as well as regulation of consciousness and alertness. EXCEPT SMELL
smell
which sense holds the strongest memory?
Mental Status Exam
systematic evaluation of psychological, biological, and sociostructural factors in a person suspected of having a mental disorder. Important because we need to: understand the person, predict behavior, plan treatment, evaluate treatment outcome.
Affect
cooperative, suspicious, guarded, polite, oppositional?
Mood
happy, irritable, elevated, depressed, euphoric?
Sensorium
reception and interpretation of stimuli. Clear or cloudy i.e. how alert is someone of who, what, where they are, date, time etc...
Hallucinations
auditory, visual, tactile, olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste)
Tactile hallucination
feeling like things are crawling on you; associated with meth, cocaine etc...
Olfactory hallucination
smelling things that arent there
Gustatory hallucination
tasting things that arent there like metallic taste (symptom mostly related to epilepsy)
Delusions
irrational strongly held beliefs that are out of touch with reality
Reliability
Consistency in measurement. Greater reliability = greater objective
Validity
Does the assessment measure what it's supposed to measure.
Standardization
ensures consistency in the use of a technique. Provides population benchmarks for comparison. Structured administration, scoring, and evaluation procedures
Projective test
Answers reveal inner psychological needs, feeling, experiences, thought processes, or other hidden aspects of the mind (unconscious conflicts). LOW reliability and validity
Objective tests
the subject's behavior is measured without him being aware in what ways his behavior is likely to affect the interpretation. true or false, yes/no, strongly agreeā€”disagree
MMPI
asseses personality traits and psychopathology.
Thematic Apperception Test
you see a picture and tell a story about it
Categorical Approach
strict categories. You either have a disorder or don't. NO spectrum
Dimensional Approach
people have varying amounts of something like different levels of anxiety in social situations. Characteristics fall on a continuum.
Prototypical Approach
combination of the 2. Identifies essential features of a psychological disorder so it can be classified but allows for nonessential variations.
DSM IV
All disorders are influenced by both psychological and biological factors. Eliminated the previous distinction between psychological vs. organic mental disorders. Had axis system
DSM V
Does not use the axial system. Disorders are categorized under broad headings. Prototypic approach. 2 new disorders: separation anxiety and selective mutism
Anxiety
future oriented mood state
Fear
Fear or Anxiety? present oriented mood
Panic attacks
abrupt experience of intense fear
Panic disorders
an anxiety disorder in which individuals experience severe, unexpected panic attacks
Agoraphobia
fear and avoidance of situations in which a person feels unsafe or unable to escape to get home, or to a hospital etc...
Generalized anxiety Disorder
chronic level of tension even when there is no specific anxiety. Excessively anxious most of the time. Symptoms must be present for 6 months or more.
2:1
Females outnumber males by how much with diagnosed anxiety disorders
Exposure based treatment
directly confronting fear
social phobia
long term and over-whelming fear of social situations
Separation anxiety disorder
unrealistic and persistent worry that something will happen to self or loved ones when apart
Selective Mutism
refusal to talk despite having the ability to. They are NOT being defiant
Cognitive behavioral therapy. Relaxation, challenging catastrophic thinking, meditation. Pharmaceuticals: Benzodiazapines and antidepressants
Treatments for Generalized anxiety disorder?
Cognitive therapy combined with purposefully retriggering panic sensations to build tolerance.
Treatments for Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia?
CBT, CBGgroupT, Pharmaceuticals: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Treatments for Social anxiety disorder?
Cognitive behavioral therapies and exposure therapy
Treaments for Specific phobias?
Cognitive behavioral therapies
Treatments for Selective mutism?
Psychotherapy, "talk therapy"; sometimes meditation
Treatments for Separation anxiety disorder
Rationalization
You come up with various explanations to justify the situation (he's only so mean and critical to make us better)