Neuro Block 1

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192 Terms
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reticular theory
nerves communicate through a continuous nerve net (protoplasmic links)
Golgi method
Silver solution that randomly stains about 1% of neurons in their entirety
Camillo Golgi
proponent of reticular theory
Santiago Ramon y Cajal
used Golgi method to provide evidence against reticular theory, no continuity between neurons
Neuron Doctrine
The hypothesis that the brain is composed of separate cells that are distinct structurally, metabolically, and functionally.
Ross Harrison
showed that neural processes (dendrites and axon) grow from the cell body when neurons are isolated in culture, axons can extend to target neurons or tissue
individual neurons stained using genetically encoded fluorescent proteins
basic unit of the nervous system; about 86 billion but only 1% work; specialized for reception, conduction, and transmission of electrochemical signals
receive input from other neurons and carry messages towards cell (many per neuron)
contains nucleus and machinery to maintain life
axon hillock
integration and initiation of new message; membrane potential here determines if an action potential will be fired
carries new message away from cell body to another neuron (1 per neuron, but can branch to form axon collaterals)
terminal bouton
site of neurotransmitter release, "output"
principle of dynamic polarity
electrical signals within a neuron flow in one direction
electrical impulse within neurons
chemical neurotransmitters
communication between a neuron and its target
sensory neurons
afferent; specialized at one end to be highly sensitive to a particular type of sensory stimulation; conducts impulses from periphery to CNS; may be bipolar or pseudo-unipolar; soma in ganglia
primary neurons of CNS; serve as relay or integration units between afferent and efferent; multipolar
motor neurons
efferent; receive signals from other neurons and conduct impulses to a muscle; multipolar; soma in spinal cord
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord; protected inside bone (skull and vertebral column)
cells that aid and modulate neurons' activities
series of interconnected, fluid filled spaces within the core of the CNS; filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) derived from ependymal cells in choroid plexus
choroid plexus
a network of blood vessels and cells in the ventricles of the brain; have cilia, which circulate CSF around the CNS
most abundant type of glia; structural support for neurons; synthesize and regulate NT levels; regulate Blood Brain Barrier (BBB); help maintain proper extracellular chemical environment for neural signaling; "endfeet" interact with capillary endothelial cells to maintain their tight junctions, which comprise BBB
Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)
limits what can get into brain; small, uncharged molecules pass with ease while big molecules have to be fat soluble or have a transporter
immune defense for CNS; change shape, proliferate, and move to site of problem; phagocytize debris, plaques, and pathogens; thought to be impacted in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Schizophrenia, + pain conditions
myelinate axons in the CNS
myelin sheath
fatty tissue that covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
Schwann cells
myelinate axons in the PNS; facilitates repairs if PNS axons are damaged
nodes of Ranvier
unmyelinated sections between myelination on an axon
peripheral nervous system
extends beyond (or exists entirely outside of ) the bony skull and vertebral column, including cranial and spinal nerves
visceral stimuli
afferent, produced by internal organs
dorso-ventral axis
The axis in bilateral symmetry that defines the top of an organism from the bottom
rostro-caudal axis
(relative to forebrain) long head-tail axis; axis for brainstem is perpendicular to that of rest of brain, thus coordinates change accordingly
anterior-posterior axis
front to back axis
superior-inferior axis
up and down axis
closer to body midline
further from body midline
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gray matter
made up of cell bodies and dendrites, color comes from nuclei
white matter
made up of myelinated axons
bundles of gray matter in the CNS
bundles of white matter in the CNS
groups of neuron cell bodies in the PNS
groups of axons in the PNS
part of the brainstem that coordinates basic life functions and reflexes (breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing and sneezing)
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part of the brainstem that includes axons that allow the cerebellum to communicate with the brainstem and cerebral cortex
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part of the brain that contains structures involved in processing visual and auditory information
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sensory region of midbrain; contains colliculi
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superior colliculus
part of the midbrain that receives visual sensory input
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inferior colliculus
part of the midbrain involved in auditory processing
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motor region of the midbrain; contains dopaminergic neurons
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ventral tegmental area (VTA)
part of the midbrain associated with reward pathway + dopamine
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substantia nigra (SN)
part of midbrain that initiates movements; black substance
motor planning, motor learning, and balance
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thalamus and hypothalamus
relay for information going to and coming from the neocortex
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regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior; regulates hormone release by coordinating with the pituitary
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basal ganglia
group of interconnected structures that curve in a C shape around the thalamus that control planning and initiation of voluntary, smooth movement
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limbic system
group of interconnected structures related to emotions, motivation, aggression, memory; the 4 Fs- fleeing, feeding, fighting, sexual behavior
emotions (fear, reward, anger, etc)
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memory formation and storage
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cerebral cortex (cerebrum)
80% of brain volume; higher order functions; expanded most in evolution
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frontal lobe
motor control and executive functions (planning, inhibition of inappropriate behaviors, working memory)
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parietal lobe
somatosensory and tactile processing
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temporal lobe
auditory processing, language and memory
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occipital lobe
visual processing
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central sulcus
separates parietal and frontal lobes
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Sylvian fissure (lateral sulcus)
separates temporal lobe from frontal and parietal lobes
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longitudinal fissure
separates cerebral hemispheres
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infolding of gyrus/sulcus
postcentral gyrus
directly caudal to central sulcus; contains primary somatosensory cortex, which processes touch and pain information
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precentral gyrus
directly rostral to central sulcus; contains primary motor cortex, which helps plan movements and sends motor signals to spinal cord
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corpus callosum
where axons cross between brain hemispheres
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# of pairs of spinal nerves
cauda equina
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
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dorsal horn
contains sensory axons (afferents) entering spinal cord
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ventral horn
contains cell bodies of motor neurons (efferents)
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cranial nerves
send motor commands to and receive sensory information from the head and neck; emerge from the brain; 12 pairs
olfactory (I)
sensory nerve; sense of smell
optic (II)
sensory nerve; vision
oculomotor (III)
motor nerve; eye movement (papillary constriction/accommodation, eyelid muscles)
trochlear (IV)
motor nerve; eye movement (intorsion, downward gaze)
trigeminal (V)
sensory/motor nerve; somatic sensation of face, mouth, and cornea; muscles of mastication
abducens (VI)
motor nerve; eye movement (abduction or lateral movement)
facial (VII)
sensory/motor nerve; facial expressions; taste from anterior tongue; lacrimal and salivary glands
vestibulocochlear (VIII)
sensory nerve; hearing and balance
glossopharyngeal (IX)
sensory/motor nerve; sensation and taste of posterior tongue; carotid baroreceptors and chemoreceptors
vagus (X)
sensory/motor nerve; autonomic gut functions; larynx and pharynx sensation; vocal cord muscles; swallowing
spinal accessory (XI)
motor nerve; shoulder and neck muscles
hypoglossal (XII)
motor nerve; tongue movements
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
part of PNS that controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
part of PNS that controls involuntary bodily functions
sympathetic division
part of ANS that arouses the body to expend energy; fight or flight
parasympathetic division
part of ANS that calms body to conserve and maintain energy; rest and digest
preganglionic neurons
neurons involved in ANS that originate in CNS; cell bodies in lateral horn of spinal cord/brain stem; project to postganglionic neurons
postganglionic neurons
neurons involved in ANS that originate in peripheral ganglia; project to target tissue
membranes that protect brain and spinal cord
dura mater
tough outermost layer of meninges
arachnoid mater
middle layer of meninges
pia mater
glossy thin innermost layer of meninges
inflammation of meninges causing activation of painful meningeal afferents
cortical spreading depression over cortex that precedes 20-30% of migraine attacks
openings in bones that allow nerves and blood vessels to enter or leave the bone
subarachnoid space
a space in the meninges beneath the arachnoid membrane and above the pia mater that contains the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
neutral buoyancy
CSF allows dense brain to not be damaged by its own weight
spinal tap/lumbar puncture
spinal needle inserted between L3-L4 to collect CSF; drugs can also be administered
abnormal accumulation of fluid (CSF) in the brain
tube that redirects excess CSF from brain to vein or stomach
capillaries with tight junctions to prevent openings
circumventricular organs
vascularized structures around the third and fourth ventricles with no blood brain barrier
membrane potential (Vm)
measure of the difference between the summed ionic charges inside and outside a neuron; separation of charges across the membrane
resting membrane potential
electrical potential of a neuron at rest; inside negative by -70mV relative to outside
charged particles in solution; atoms with extra electrons or missing electrons, giving them a + or - charge
voltage-gated channels
open and close in response to changes in membrane potential
ligand-gated channels
open in response to binding of specific molecule to a specific receptor
Na+ and Cl-
concentration of these ions greater outside neuron
K+ and protein (A-)
concentration of these ions greater inside neuron
homogenizing forces
promote equal distribution of ions across the membrane through concentration gradients and voltage gradients
opposing forces
differential permeability and Na+/K+ pump (ATP dependent)
reversal potential
membrane potential where the current reverses its polarity (ions go from flowing out to in or from in to out); if cell permeable to only one ion, equilibrium potential = reversal potential
differential permeability
-K+ and Cl- pass readily through resting membrane -Na+ cannot pass through resting membrane
movement of ions across membrane through ion channels; causes Vm to become positive or negative
graded potentials
small fluctuations in ion concentrations that create small voltage fluctuations; proportional to intensity of stimulation; decremental; travel by passive spread of ions
postsynaptic potential (PSP)
type of graded potential where a cell is stimulated on dendrites/soma and membrane voltage changes as ions flow across the membrane
change in membrane potential that makes the inside of the cell more negative than the outside
inhibitory postsynaptic potential
IPSP; negative graded hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane
change in membrane potential that makes inside of the cell less negative than the outside
excitatory postsynaptic potential
EPSP; positive graded depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane
multiple PSPs come in at the same time, pushing the membrane potential to threshold
EPSP-IPSP cancellation
excitatory and inhibitory graded potentials cancel each other out
spatial summation
excitatory potentials from many neurons trigger threshold point
temporal summation
many excitatory potentials from one neuron trigger threshold point
threshold potential
minimum membrane potential that must be reached in order for an action potential to be generated; -50 to -30mV
driving force
difference between membrane potential and equilibrium potential of ion; determines directions and strength of current (negative means inward and positive means outward)
action potential
electrical signal used for neuronal communication and due to functioning of voltage-gated ion channels; rapid (~1ms), transient change in membrane voltage from negative resting potential to positive voltages (>0mV); non-decremental
all or none
neuron either fires completely or not at all; always the same strength once threshold is reached
N+ influx, voltage-gated channels opened, strong electrochemical driving force, not competing with K+ efflux