BIO307: Test #3: Chapter 14: Cardiovascular

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Dividing walls between the chambers of the heart
Pulmonary Arteries
Carry blood from heart to lungs
Pulmonary Veins
carry blood from lungs to heart
(in relation to fluid), resistance increases as length of tube and viscosity of fluid increases, and as radius of tube decreases. Radius has the largest effect of resistance.
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
surface recording of the electrical activity of the heart
Autorhythmic Cells
Cells that depolarize spontaneously, having an unstable membrane potential which is referred to as the pacemaker potential
widening of blood vessels as a result of relaxation of blood vessel muscular walls
narrowing of blood vessels resulting from contraction of muscular wall of the vessels
a serous membrane with two layers that surrounds the heart, consists of outer fibrous layer and inner double serous membrane
Cardiac muscular tissue of the heart, striated muscle
Contraction phase of cardiac cycle
relaxation phase of cardiac cycle
Stroke Volume
amount of blood pumped by one ventricle during one contraction
End-Systolic Volume
volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of contraction
Ejection Fraction
percent of EDV (end diastolic volume) ejected with one contraction (stroke volume / EDV)
Order of Blood
Heart -> Arteries -> Arterioles -> Capillaries -> Venules -> Veins -> SVC/IVC -> Heart
Blood Flow vs Pressure Gradient
Blood flows down the pressure gradient, rate of blood flow is proportional the blood pressure difference between the two sites. Blood Vessel Radius to Resistance: a 4th power relationship: Ex: Do the larger number over the smaller number, the factor ^ 4 is the difference
Label Heart Exterior
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Label Heart Interior
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Heart Valves
ensure unidirectional blood flow, are like gates, open and close to allow blood to flow from one area of the heart to another Atrioventricular Valves: between atrium and ventricles Semilunar: between ventricle and arteries Issues: Prolapse: when a chordae fails, valve is pushed back into atrium during ventricular contraction If a valve fails, the blood would not have the control system to prevent blood from flowing backward (can be seen moving backwards through the chambers on ultrasound)
Muscle Cells and Gap Junctions
Ions are transported between adjacent cells to allow for the electrical signaling for the pacemaker potential throughout the cardiac muscle
Spontaneous Generation of Action Potential in Heart
Pacemaker potential is created by autorhythmic cells Pathway: Sinoatrial (SA) Node -> Internodal Pathways -> Atrioventricular (AV) Node -> Atria -> Septum -> Apex of the Heart -> Upward through the Ventricle
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ECG/EKG Reading:
P wave: atrial depolarization P-R segment: conduction through AV node and AV bundle QRS complex: ventricular depolarization T wave: ventricular repolarization
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ECG Reading W/ Depolarization Events
Start: superior atria depolarization = P wave medial atria + P-Q + P-R segment = conduction through AV node Septum = Q wave Apex of the Ventricle = R wave Depolar. of Ventricles = S Wave Contraction of Ventricles = S - T segment Ventric. Repolarization = T wave
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Wiggers Diagram
Shows QRS complex
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Events of Cardiac Cycle
1) Late Diastole: both sets of chambers relaxed, ventricles fill passively 2) Atrial Systole: small amount of blood enters ventricles 3) Isovolumic Ventricular Contraction: AV valves close once cavity fills, doesn't open semilunar valves until volume of ventricle fills up [EDV, end diastolic volume] = Max Blood Volume of Ventricle 4) Ventricular Ejection: Semilunar valves open due to ventricular pressure 5) Isovolumic ventricular relaxation: ventricles relax, ventricular pressure falls, semilunar valves now close [ESV, end systolic volume] = Minimum Blood Volume in Ventricles
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Cardiac Output
CO = SV * HR ^ Venous Return: CO increases ^ Blood Volume: CO increases ^ Sympathetic Activity: CO increases (epinephrine direct relationship on HR) ^ Parasympathetic Activity: CO decreases (Ach. direct relationship on HR) ^ Heart Rate: CO increases ^ SV: CO increases
Factors Normally Affect Venous Return
EDV directly affects Venous Return (amount of blood returning to heart from venous circulation) Factors Affecting it: 1) Contraction/Compression of Veins Returning Blood 2) Pressure changes in abdomen and thorax during breathing (the respiratory pump) 3) Sympathetic innervation