Imperialism US History II

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127 Terms
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the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories
economic ways to extend control
thirst for new markets while going through Industrial Revolution -- access to natural resources/raw materials; crop limitations of the US that other areas could grow for them -- sugar; factories made a lot of product, supply went up, while demand went down, making prices go down. they wanted new markets to sell off over production
military ways to extend control
desire for military strength -- territories/bases all over the world would give the optics of being strong/powerful --> military threat and take over; military bases all over -- territories by opponents to become threat; easy attack of threats
political ways to extend control
belief in cultural superiority -- spread democracy to "weaker, inferior" territories to lift them up, making us more powerful; spread Christianity to inferior religions
American businessmen, Protestant missionaries, and imperialists
biggest proponents of Imperialism
to make $$ in new markets and from selling off overproduction
why businessmen supported imperialism
to spread Christianity
why protestant missionaries supported imperialism
government officials interested in building up military strength
Alfred Mahan
imperialist focused on American becoming a naval powerhouse, who called for the construction of a canal going from the Atlantic to the Pacific (aka the Panama Canal)
frontier thesis
in order to sell imperialism to the American public, it was said that the US had fulfilled Manifest Destiny, and without expansion, their economy would become stagnant and they can only grow by taking over outside territories across the world.
belief in an aggressive foreign policy-- willing to go to war. basically imperialists X 1000 = jingoists (Teddy Roosevelt is example)
why was Russia looking to sell Alaska?
they believed there were no resources, it was difficult to defend with no safe way of getting there over treacherous waters
Henry Seward
secretary of state, purchases Alaska on half of the United States for a few million dollars
Seward's Folly/ Seward's Icebox
Seward was blasted in the press, who thought Alaska was useless like the Russians
timber, minerals, and later oil
explorers found that Alaska was a great source of these natural resources, proving the press wrong
America's business relationship with Hawaii
in 1867, Hawaii had sugar crop and the king agreed to export sugar tax free to the US, making tons of businessmen move to Hawaii to grow sugar and be in change to export to US
the king was the businessmen's ___________; he did whatever they wanted
the Hawaiian constitution
the king amended this to give American businessmen rights and powers that even the Native Hawaiians did not have
king dies, leaving the fate of the businessmen up to the successor, his sister
Queen Lil
"Hawaii for Hawaiians" -- not here to cater to businessmen, she upended the advantages put in place and gave businessmen nothing
the businessmen reached out to president McKinley to request that Hawaii be _________, but he refused
under house arrest
the businessmen storm Queen Lil's house and trap her, putting her __________________________________
Sanford Dole
"president" of Hawaii, he was the businessman in charge now
Hawaii becomes a US territory after President McKinley steps in to annex Hawaii to tamp down any rebels
Guam, Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, outposts in Africa
Spain is falling apart, only having four territories left out of their previously huge empire and losing power quickly
Cubans' first revolt
failed, but successfully forced Spain to abolish slavery because they were weak/running out of power and wanted to make the Cubans happy. However, it only caused them more money problems because now they had to fund their laborers.
Cuban plantations
US invested $$ in these
Jose Marti
led the second Cuban revolution from NY in exile, and he utilized guerilla warfare that Spain couldn't handle, deliberately destroying property because they wanted to lure the US into this conflict to side with Cuba
heavy American invests
destroyed property and plantations with what to get their attention, but it was not enough
US Newspapers
see an opportunity to get the US to go to war, plus the war drama sells paper to make them money
Hearst & Pulitzer
do the most to get America into the war and are the biggest instigators; told photographers to take "shady" pictures in Cuba so they can spin a story
yellow journalism
exaggerated style of writing meant to lure in the reader or just enrage them -- lying to make them mad or but the newspaper
"You'll furnish the pictures, and I'll furnish the war"
Hearth and Pulitzer told this to the photographers to get them to give them "incriminating" pictures to tell a story of horror in Cuba
Valeriano "Butcher" Weyler
sent by Spain to Cuba to restore order, he put Cubans into concentrations camps, where innocent civilians were held so they couldn't attack
De Lome Letter and the USS Maine
two major headlines that lead the US to War -- all that were necessary for the American public to demand war and McKinley to declare it
De Lome Letter
a telegraph that had been intercepted from a Spanish foreign minister to a friend, H&P took unrelated pieces into one excerpt out of context; mocked McKinley for being weak and the Spanish could do whatever they wanted--> enrages Americans
USS Maine
naval ship sent to Cuba to bring back American citizens so they weren't caught in the crossfires of war; as it's docked in the Havana harbor, it mysteriously explodes-- front page says the Spanish did it
Teller Amendment
added to the US' declaration of war and state that the US was not fighting to win Cuba as a territory, but for their independence
the first battle of the Spanish-American war was fought here to split Spain's troop between here and Cuba, weakening both armies; George Dewey led the attack
supported Dewey and America, so their leader says if the Philippines fight with America, they will grant their independence/freedom-- this was the only reason they agreed to fight
naval superiority
America won because of this in the 3 month war, while their land forces were not adequately trained
Rough Riders
volunteer cavalry that fought in Cuba led by Teddy Roosevelt
San Juan Hill
US victory here led to the end of the war
US and Spain signed this on August 12th
Terms of the Treaty of Paris
Spain freed Cuba, and turned over Guam and Puerto Rico to the US; Spain also sold the Philippines to the US for $20 million (breaking promise)
USS Maine cw
American ship that mysteriously exploded in the Havana Harbor
George Dewey
American leader in charge of forces in the Philippines
Alfred Mahan argued for a canal to be built here in order to strengthen the US navy
Seward's Folly
the press nicknamed the purchase of Alaska this because they believed it was a terrible decision to purchase
yellow journalism cw
an exaggerated style of writing that is intended to lure or enrage the reader
Alfred Mahan
a prominent supporter of American imperialism who said it was necessary in order for the US Navy to become a world power
Emilio Aguinaldo
leader of the Filipinos; was promised independence by the Americans
De Lome Letter cw
an intercepted telegram written by a Spanish foreign minister that called McKinley a weak president
naval superiority cw
the main reason why America easily won the war against the Spanish was because of our....
the Philippines
the Treaty of Paris sold the US...
imperialism cw
stronger nations taking over weaker territories economically, politically, or militarily
timber and minerals
after purchasing Alaska, America discovered it was rich in these natural materials
Treaty of Paris
this peace agreement ended the Spanish-American war
Sandford Dole
US businessman who was declared the president of Hawaii
Teller Amendment cw
this declared that the US was fighting for Cuban independence and they would have their independence after the war was over
Valeriano Weyler
Spanish general sent to Cuba to restore order
they sought to sell Alaska because they viewed it as worthless
Hearst and Pulitzer
two American journalists infamous for fanning the flames of war through their publication
Jose Marti cw
Cuban revolutionary that led the second revolution from exile
Queen Lil cw
declared a "Hawaii for Hawaiians" agenda
Guam and Puerto Rico
the Treaty of Paris gave the US these two territories
Russo-Japanese War
1904 - Japan declared war on Russia for imperial reasons -- fighting over two territories
Korea and Manchuria
what 2 territories were Japan and Russia fighting over?
massive surprise attack
Japan staged a _____________________________________________ on Russia's Pacific fleet -- take out huge chunk of the fleet
lose; running out of money
Russia feels they will ____; Japan is what?
Japan's huge advantage
winning, so they would get a lot of things out of the war if they end it now
Theodore Roosevelt
peacemaker -- to mediate peace negotiations between Japan (who has many demands) and Russia
end result of TR's peace talks
half of Sakhalin Island, Korea, Port Arthur & South Manchurian Rail Road (trade benefits, plus it protects our Chinese interest), and Russia keeps Siberia
Nobel Peace Prize
TR was awarded this in 1906-- first US president to receive this, giving the US a high stature on the world stage
Japanese treatment in Western US
Japanese immigrants faced increased hostility/discrimination in the west, California specifically. Tensions were high. Communities were segregated between Japanese and Americans, who felts immigrants were "stealing" American jobs -- justified shoving them out of "white America"
Gentleman's Agreement
TR and Japanese government in response to terrible treatment in California. Teddy agreed to intervene and end discrimination and segregation going on in California. Japanese government agreed to cut back significantly on immigrants to the US, specifically men only -- Teddy thought he looked weak for doing this
Great White Fleet
fleet of huge and new naval ships sent on worldwide tour to dock in various ports in foreign nations so the citizens can look up in awe -- huge flex on Teddy's behalf -- criticism/waste of resources; most impressive aspect of TR's foreign policy that intimidated the world w/o a single shot
French Failure with the Panama Canal
Teddy chose Panama out of convience-- a private French company had started building the canal but went bankrupt, and they were looking to sell to the US, who had agreed to build partner canal with Great Britain
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
Britain cedes any control of canal, allowing the US to build it by itself
Panama was controlled by this nation that had to agree to build the canal
Hay-Herran Treaty
the Colombian government sends representative to negotiate -- Panama grants the US control of canal, but the Colombian gov rejects, making Teddy unhappy
Colombia Problems
Panama revolts and becomes independent after Teddy instigates revolution
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
US can purchase canal and rent annually
laborers kept falling ill with unknown disease, affecting the construction
volcanic, loose, dry
the soil in panama were these things and kept avalanching back in on itself
10 years
the Panama Canal was finished in approx this long (even with French progress)
enhanced US status
great accomplishment, navy can pass from the Atlantic to the Pacific, foreign nations pay to use canal --> $$
financially tied
US was __________________ to Latin America, and feared that they would become in debt to Europe, thereby pushing the US out
Monroe Doctrine
TR reminds European nations of this document, which says that European nations should stay out of the affairs of the western hemisphere, but this lacks a consequence
Roosevelt Corollary
added in 1904 to the Monroe Doctrine, this says that if a European nation violates MD, the US will use force to remove them -- "Speak Softly. Carry a Big Stick"
Dollar Diplomacy
Taft's one policy that affects imperialism -- failure that undoes TR's work; slogan: Dollars for Bullets; Encouraged Wall Street investors to send their dollars to Latin America
European bonds; US
Taft hoped to weaken _______________________ and strengthen ties to _____ with the Dollar Diplomacy
real or imagined, anytime business was threatened, they were sent in, and this only ruined relations with Latin America
overall weak president
Taft was...
arguments for imperialism
the “inferior” Filipinos lacked the ability to self-govern, therefore requiring the US to step in and “civilize” the Filipinos and get them ready for independence. Good for American economy, and they could have naval bases.
arguments for anti-imperialism
racial prejudice – too much effort, fear of competition with Filipino laborers, felt going in their and forcing the Filipinos violated the principles of what America was about
weakness of anti-imperialist argument
imperialists had a more united front, the face of anti-imperialists was William Jennings Bryan and when he ran for office, in order to appeal to large group of people, he flip-flopped and was not anti-imperialist anymore – ruining movement
What impact did General Arthur MacArthur & Taft have on the Philippines?
General Arthur MacArthur offered amnesty to Filipino guerillas who agreed to surrender because he knew the war wouldn’t be won by fighting alone, and he formed close relations with the islands’ economic elites. Taft was sent to the Philippines to establish a civilian government, and he became the first “governor-general” of the Philippines and declared he would prepare the Filipinos for their independence. Taft helped improve economic development and political independence, and he helped the US gain secure control of the Philippines through his efforts.
What were the Insular Cases? (PR)What was their impact on imperialism?
The Insular Cases were when the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the mechanism of the Foraker Act. Their impact on imperialism was that they upheld the Foraker Act’s mechanism for ensuring sovereignty over lands deemed vital to the US economic and military security, allowing for the United States to rule over Puerto Rico’s politics until they were granted US citizenship.
Why did the annexation of Puerto Rico and subjugation of Cuba not bother Americans as much as the Philippines?
The annexation of Puerto Rico and the subjugation of Cuba did not bother Americans as much as the Philippines because with the Monroe Doctrine, the US had claimed the Western Hemisphere as its sphere of influence; the Philippines were outside this area. Many Americans believed the US had a right to protect its interests of Puerto Rico and Cuba, but the Philippines was outside its control, plus anti-imperialists opposed the takeover heavily.
What did the open door notes ask, and what was the response?
The open door notes asked the international powers to agree to sharing rights in China through the different spheres of influence. The response was most countries not outright agreeing, but not necessarily disagreeing, so the policy was put into place. Chinese citizens did not like the Open Door Policy, so as a response, the Boxer Rebellion broke out.
How did the Boxer Rebellion end up strengthening US hold in China?
The Boxer Rebellion ended up strengthening US hold in China because a new round of open door notes were sent out by Hay that wanted to respect China’s political independence. The agreements and decisions made by the US were able to keep China intact and open to free trade, and were a major foreign policy win for the US.
Why did Wilson feel so strongly about Mexico being Democratic?
Wilson felt so strongly about Mexico being Democratic because he was troubled by a foreign policy that ignored a less powerful nation’s right to determine its own future, and he believed Mexicans were capable of making democracy work. He showed concern for morality and justice in foreign affairs, but Wilson was also fearful that political unrest in Mexico could lead to violence, social disorder, and a revolutionary government hostile to US economic interests. Wilson wanted to encourage democracy and limit social change.
Why didn't Wilson support Huerta? Where did he throw his support?
Wilson didn’t support Huerta because Huerta assassinated the leader of the Mexican revolution, Francisco Madero and that’s how he came to power. Wilson refused to acknowledge Huerta’s “government of butchers,” and he instead threw his support to Venustiano Carranza and Francisco Villa, two enemies of Huerta who commanded rebel armies and claimed to be democrats.
Why did Wilson send in US marines? How did this benefit Carranza?
Wilson sent in US marines because he wanted them to go ashore at the Mexican port city of Veracruz. He did so after the arrest of several US sailors by Huerta’s troops. Wilson’s input of troops benefitted Carranza because the American control over Veracruz weakened Huerta’s regime enough to allow Carranza to take power.
What made Wilson change his position on supporting Carranza? Where did his support go next?
After Carranza took power, he proposed a land reform program that would redistribute property from the rich to the poor and transfer developmental rights on oil lands from foreign corporations to the Mexican government. The transfer of oil rights would affect US petroleum companies as well. Wilson was angry and did not like this, so he decided to support Pancho Villa instead.
How did Villa end up becoming Wilson's enemy? What did Wilson do in response to Villa's animosity?
Villa ended up becoming Wilson’s enemy because after Carranza’s forces defeated Villa’s, Wilson withdrew his support and was willing to recognize the Carranza government. Villa was furious and murdered several US citizens in Mexico and New Mexico. In response to Villa’s actions, Wilson sent a US expeditionary force (military) into Mexico to hunt down Villa and his bandits.
this was a group of nationalists who thought that a swaggering foreign policy and a willingness to go to war would enhance the nation's glory
Japan and Russia
the war between these two nations threatened the Open Door Policy in China, which is why TR got involved
imperialism CW!
America was interested in ___________________ because it desired new markets, military strength, and had a strong belief in cultural superiority
Dollar Diplomacy
Taft's foreign policy that encouraged US investment in Latin America
Guantanamo Bay
One piece of the Platt Amendment was that the US could lease ______________________ as a naval base
Roosevelt Corallary
this was added to the Monroe Doctrine; it stated that if any European power interfered with interests in the Western Hemisphere, the US would force to expel them
In _______, a government overthrow took place that was primarily led by US businessmen and plantation owners
Alfred Mahan CW
this man declared that in order for the US to be a world power, they must focus on naval superiority
Teller Amendment
this was passed at the start of the Spanish-American War and promised Cuba that the US was only fighting for their independence from Spain
this nation looked to sell Alaska because they felt it had no value and it was difficult to defend
Nobel Peace Prize
TR was awarded this for his efforts in mediating peace between Russia and Japan
Platt Amendment
the US forced Cuba to adopt this into their constitution in order to end US military rule in their country
Gentlemen's Agreement CW
TR made this with Japan; it stated that Japan would limit immigration to the US and TR would not allow further segregation
Woodrow Wilson had difficulty in controlling this nation during his time in office which set up a hostility that lasted into WWI
the _________________ led government was recognized by Wilson, not because he wanted to, but because he had to deal with WWI
Boxer Rebellion CW!
this was a nationalist uprising in China against foreign influence
this nation controlled Panama as America was attempting to construct a canal
Great White Fleet CW
this is considered the most impressive aspect of TR's foreign policy; it established American might and intimidated the world, without instigating conflict
Foraker Act
this ended military rule in Puerto Rico and established a civil government
US outnumbered the Spanish regulars by seven to one
Which of these statements is false and incorrectly describes the US land forces? - The US standard-issue, blue flannel uniforms proved too heavy for fighting in Cuba and rations were very poor - US outnumbered the Spanish regulars by seven to one - Outfitting, training, and transporting new US recruits overwhelmed the army's capabilities - Most of the Volunteers had to make do with ancient Civil War rifles that still used black, rather than smokeless, powder