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musculoskeletal objectives

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33 Terms
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what does an x-ray do
visualize bone
x-ray precautions
ensure pt isnt pregnant
what does a dexascan do
measures bone mineral density
what is a precaution with a dexascan
avoid calcium supplements the day of
what is a precaution for a CT scan
ensure pt has no shellfish allergy
what are precautions for an MRI
ensure there is no metal on patient, claustrophobia management
what does a bone scan do
find malignancies
what are precautions for a bone scan
give radioisotope, empty bladder, remain supine
what does an arthroscopy show
abnormalities of the meniscus, joint, and ligaments
what does a positive ESR indicate
inflammation
what does a positive rheumatoid factor indicate
connective tissue disease
what dies a decrease of calcium and phosphorus indicate
osteomalacia (bone weakness)
what does increased uric acid indicate
gout
what does a positive C-reactive protein indicate
inflammatory disease, infection
what does an elevated CPK indicate
muscular dystrophy, trauma
what is traction
applies pulling force on extremity to attain realignment
what is a NANDA for traction
risk for infection from the pins
what are nursing interventions for traction
maintain bed in high position and ensure patient is pulled up in bed so the weight is not sitting on the floor
what is compartment syndrome
too much swelling and pressure against a pressure dressing or cast
what is the tell tale sign of compartment syndrome
out of proportion pain
what are the 6 P's of compartment syndrome
paresthesia (numbness and tingling) pain unrelieved by analgesics pallor pressure increase paralysis pulselessness
what is the treatment for compartment syndrome
remove cast, needle to remove swelling, fasciotomy
what is osteomyelitis
infection of bone, marrow, and soft tissue
what is the cause of osteomyelitis
staph aureus
what are the signs and symptoms of osteomyelitis
bone pain, fever, N/V, swelling, warmth, sepsis
what are the nursing interventions for osteomyelitis
get cultures and then start antibiotics
what is a closed reduction
non-surgical realignment of the joint
what is an open reduction (ORIF)
surgical fixation with screws, rods, plates, and pins
what is acute back pain associated with
activity
what is the treatment for acute back pain
analgesics, muscle relaxants, rest, heat/cold
how long does back pain have to last for it to be considered chronic
3 months
what is the treatment for chronic back pain
pain relief, antidepressants, surgery
what are the nursing interventions for a post-op patient after surgery for intervertebral disk damage
maintain spine alignment (use log roll), opioids, bed rest, assess for CSF leaks