Immune (Lymphoid) System Coloring Page Review

0.0(0) Reviews
Report Flashcard set

Spaced Repetition

spaced repetition





Practice Test



48 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (48)
an anatomic state of security against disease
Natural immunity
exists independent of any specific microorganismal interaction with a lymphocyte
Phagocytes participate in both ________ and _______ immunity
natural, acquired
Lymphocytes participate in ________ immunity and enhance _______ immunity
acquired, natural
Natural immunity operates indiscriminately against
microorganisms and degenerated cells/cell parts
Natural immunity 1-5:
1) Anatomic barriers physically resist microorganismal invasion 2) Phagocytes approach their prey from the blood 3) Phagocytes approach their prey from connective tissue 4) Phagocytes engulf their prey (phagocytosis) 5) Phagocytes destroy their prey with lysosomal enzymes
Skin or mucous membranes are examples of what?
anatomic barriers
Anatomic barriers physically resist
microorganismal invasion
Phagocytes approach their prey from the _____ or _______ ______, engulf them and destroy them with ______ ______.
blood, connective tissues, lysosomal enzymes
Process in which the phagocytes engulf their prey
The name given to several soluble proteins found in the body fluids which then activated attach to microorganisms, enhancing their phagocytosis
Example of tissue irritation:
disruption by a splinter
Tissue irritation induces
an inflammatory response which involves both natural and acquired immunity
Acquired immunity involves diverse but specific lymphocyte responses to the presence of
A specific lymphocytic reaction to antigens
immune response
An immune response is characterized by the _______ and _______ of lymphocytes followed by the destruction of antigens
activation, proliferation
Two kinds of acquired immunity are possible based on lymphocyte types:
humoral immunity and cellular immunity
Inherent in both kinds of immunity are:
specificity and diversity of response, retention of cellular memory of antigen, and the ability to recognize self from non-self among the body's proteins
Humoral (fluid-related) immunity is characterized by
B lymphocytes being activated by antigen, proliferating, forming memory (M) cells, secreting antibody, and forming plasma cells which secrete antibody
Antibodies are _____ _____ formed in response to a _____ _____ and attached to it at the _______ _____ ______, facilitating its phagocytosis
complex proteins, specific antigen, antigenic determinant site
Cellular immunity is characterized by
T lymphocytes being activated by antigens attached to antigen presenting cells
Antigen presenting cells
T cells differentiate into _____ T lymphocytes and ______ T lymphocytes
helper, cytolytic
Helper T lymphocytes
enhance humoral immunity by activating B cells, augment the inflammatory response, activate phagocytes with stimulating factors (lymphokines), and form memory (M) cells
Cytolytic T lymphocytes
bind to and destroy infected cells, and form memory cells.
Memory cells
recognize specific structural characteristics of the antigens encountered ("memory") and facilitate rapid immune responses on subsequent exposure to those antigens
Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome
AIDS is characterized by
a marked reduction of functions by immune cells
A marked reduction of functions by immune cells
AIDS is caused by
an infection of phagocytes and lymphocytes with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
HIV is transferred from one person to another via
body fluids, mainly blood and semen
Once in body fluids , HIV ______ _______ attach to specific _______ on the surface of the cell membranes of cell and _______ of the virus usually follow
surface molecules, receptors, endocytosis
Endocytosis of a virus
The HIV converts its genetic material (RNA) into DNA by means of an enzyme called _______ _______ attached to the viral RNA
reverse transcriptase
This new viral DNA segment is then incorporated into the DNA of the host cell. This integrated DNA is called ______ DNA
Proviral DNA is capable of producing viral RNA which provides the
"blueprint" (instructions) for the synthesis of viral proteins in the host cell, and the subsequent construction of infected virus (viral particles, virions)
Latency is
the suspension or slowed progression of the manifestations of a disease
How many years until the normal activities of daily living can be carried on without the symptoms/sings of life-threatening immunosupression?
two to ten
AIDS becomes activated when
infected cells disburse the viral particles to other T cells and phagocytes, or when those infected cells cease responding to antigenic stimuli
Immune function is usually suppressed due to the destruction of _________ by the infective process and the rapid depression of ______ _______
T lymphocytes, cellular immunity
T memory cells decline in numbers and
related antigen memory is impaired
First step of HIV infection:
immune function is initially suppressed due to the destruction of T lymphocytes by the infective process
Steps 2-12 of HIV infection (the rapid depression of cellular immunity):
2) T memory cells decline in numbers, and related antigen memory is impaired 3) T cell-enhanced phagocytosis is diminished 4) Inflammatory responses are limited 5) Increase in antigen numbers and activity 6) Defective neurotransmitter functions, memory loss and other neurologic deficits 7) B lymphocytes fail to proliferate in response to antigen due to depleted T cell-related stimuli 8) Sharp reduction of their numbers and those of B memory cells 9) Reduction in number of plasma cells 10) Reduction in number of antibodies 11) Large lymphocytes are reduced both in number and activity 12) Formation of neoplasms (cancer)
Phagocytes of the brain and spinal cord
Neurologic deficits
Microorganismal access to the unprotected body
opportunistic infections
HIV infection leads to decreased numbers and functions of __________ and ________ which, in turn, adversely affect many aspects of _______ and ______ immunity, resulting in _______, _______, ______ _______, and _______.
helper T cells, phagocytes, acquired, natural, infections, tumors, neurologic dysfunction, wasting