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40 Terms
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3/5th Compromise
the decision at the Constitutional Convention on how to count slaves for the purpose of deciding the population and determining how many seats each state would have in progress
Alien and Sedition Acts
Four Acts which basically let the president kickout/jail/fine enemies or aliens of the state on will and also prevent speech or media that harmed or spoke against the U.S. government and sought to hurt the Democratic-Republicans
American Independence/Revolution
the conflict arose from growing tensions between residents of Great Britain's 13 North American colonies and the colonial government, which represented the British crown, in which the United States was officially established.
They opposed the ratification of the new federal Constitution and united their fear of a powerful and potentially oppressive national government, a government dominated by wealthy aristocrats and the absence of bill rights in the new Constitution
Articles of COnfederation
The first written constitution of the United States that gave the States supreme power and the central government lacked the authority to tax
Bank of the United States
A central bank that expanded Federal fiscal and monetary power (along with a federal mint and excise taxes) used to stabilize and improve the nation's credit, and to improve handling of the financial business, which caused much controversy
Benjamin Franklin
He played a major part in the American revolution. He negotiated French support for the colonists, sign the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789)
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religon, and the press
Coercive Acts
Passed in response to the Boston Tea Part, sought to punish Massachusetts as a warning to other colonies.
Continental Army
Under the command of George Washington, it was America's military during the Revolutionary War.
Continental Congress
All colonies but Georgia went to this in 1774 to determine how the colonies should react to what, from their viewpoint, seemed to pose an alarming threat to their rights and liberties, no talk of secession from England
Declaration of Independence
Approved by Congress on July 4, 1776, it formalized the colonies' separation from Britain and laid out the Enlightenment values of natural rights to "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness"
Democratic-Republican Party
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong State governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Provided framework of natural rights for both American and French Revolution, rise of capitalism and and heavily influenced Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine
Federalist Papers (Hamilton & Madison)
A collection of 85 articles and essays promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution
A political party that called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain, as well as opposition to revolutionary France.
French Revolution
France's rebellion in which George Washington did not want to get involved for fear of damage to the trade business, he gave the Neutrality Proclamation, which made America neutral
George Washington
virginian who was commander-in-chief of the continental army and the president of the constitutional convention. Later became the first President and established many presidential traditions
George Washington's Farewell Adress
This stressed maintaining commercial but not political ties to other nations; stressed not entering permanent alliances, and America's uniqueness depended on being independent on action on feoreign affairs
Great Compromise
made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house, the senate, of the legislature, and representation based on population in the other house, the House of Representatives
Hamilton's Financial Plan
Created to stabilize the American economy. It consisted of federal assumption of all debts, including state and federal debts and the chartering of the U.S. bank to help restore American credit
Jay's treat
Signed to avert the threat of war, it eliminated British control of western posts and established America's claim for damages from British ship seizures
John Adams
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. Served as the second president of the United States
Judicary Act of 1789
It organized the Supreme Court, originally with five justices and a chief justice, along with several federal district and circuit courts. It also created the attorney general's office. This Act created the judiciary branch of the U.S. government
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
It established the precedent by which the Federal government would be sovereign and expand westward with the admission of new states and prohibited slavery in the territory, had the practical effect of establishing the Ohio River as the boundary between free and slave territory.
Proclamation of Neutrality
This was a formal announcement issued by U.S. President George Washington in May 1793, declaring the nation neutral in the conflict between France and Great Britain. It threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to any country at war.
Remember the Ladies
Abigail Adams writes to her husband, John Adams, urging him and the other members of the Continental Congress not to forget about the nation's women when fighting for America's independence.
Republican Motherhood
It centered on the belief that the patriots' daughters should be raised to uphold the ideals of republicanism, in order to pass on republican values to the next generation.
Second Continental COngress
managed the Colonial war effort and moved incrementally towards independence, adopting the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The Congress acted as the de facto national government of what became the United States by raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats
Seven Years' War (French and Indian War)
This New World conflict marked another chapter in the long imperial struggle between Britain and France, ultimately ending with a British victory and a huge debt.
Shay's Rebellion
A series of protests in 1786 and 1787 by American farmers against state and local enforcement of tax collections and judgements for debt and showed the weakness of the Articles of COnfederation
Stamp Act Congress
It was the first gathering of elected representatives from several of the American colonies to devise a unified protest against new British taxation
Stamp Act
This measure was raised revenue in support of the new military force. It mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of the tax.
Sugar Act
First law passed by Parliament that raised tax revenues in the colonies for the crown. It increased duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies.
Thomas Jefferson
Author of the Declaration of Independence, he became the leader of the Democratic-Republicans and a fierce opponent of Alexnader Hamilton
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
This encouraged Americans to rise in opposition to the British government and establish a new government based on the Enlightenment ideals. Historians have cited the publication of this pamphlet as the event that finally sparked the Revolutionary war.
Treaty of Paris in 1783
negotiated between the United States and Great Britain, ended the revolutionary war and recognized American independence.
Whiskey Rebellion
farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey; the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion; The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem
XYZ Affair
A political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1789, early in the administration of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France that led to an undeclared war called the Quasi-War